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Bio 1090 Midterm.doc

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BIOL 1090
Brian Mc Dougall

Bio 1090 MidtermChapter 1 1839 Theodor Schwann proposed 2 tenets of cell theory1 All organisms are composed of 1 or more cells2 The cell is the structural unit of life3 1855 Cells can arise only by division from a preexisting cell Cells can be removed from a living thingbe cultured to reproduce First culture of human cells 1951 from a tumour In vitro outside of the bodyCellscell processes are very similar in different organismsCell Complexity Cells acquireuse energy continual turnover maintains cell Cells are capable of many chemical reactions metabolism Cells are selfregulatingProkaryotic Singlecelled bacteria Genetic material contained in a nucleoid no boundary membrane Smaller amounts of DNA Single circular chromosome Cytoplasm generally lacks membranous structures Material transported via simple diffusionMuch smaller cytoskeleton Mainly nonsexual some capable of conjugation More adept at picking upincorporating foreign DNA Movement via flagellum Live in biofilms some live on inorganic dietEukaryotic Multicelledstructurally more complex Fungi protists plants etc Cytoplasm contains many structures membranes serve as a transportation systemComplex mitosis processAerobic respirationphotosynthesis Complex flagellacilia Membrane vesicles phagocytosis etc 3 different RNA polymerases Sexual reproductionChapter 4Overview of Membrane Function1 Compartmentalization Independantly regulated cellular activities without external interference2 Provides framework for biochemical activities3 Selectively permeable barrier Communication between compartments4 Transporting solutes5 Responding to external stimuli Called signal transduction via receptors that combine with ligands6 Intracellular interaction7 Energy transduction Converting one type of energy into anotherThe Chemical Composition of MembranesMEMBRANE LIPIDS All amphipathic contain hydrophillichydrophobic regions1 Phosphoglycerides phospholipids containing phosphate group built on a glycerol backbone Diglycerides 2 fatty acids1 hydrophilic phosphate groupeither choline ethanolamine serine or inositol Above groups are all smallhydrophillicwhen attached to the negatively charged phosphate it becomes water soluble head group PSPI are negative PCPE are neutralFatty acyl chainshydrophobic2 Sphingolipids contain a sphingosine amino alcohol with long hydrocarbon chain linked to a fatty acid by its amino group2 long hydrophobic hydrocarbon chainsa hydrophillic region at the other end3 Cholesterol small hydrophillic hydroxyl group towards membrane surfacerest embedded in the lipid bilayer Its hydrophobic rings are flatrigidinterfere with movements of fatty acid tails of phospholipidsIMPORTANCE OF LIPID BILAYER Very diverse composition can determind physical state of the membrane influence activity of various proteinsprovide precursors for highly active chemical messengers that regulate cell function Membranes form interconnected networks within the cell Membrane shape can change due to flexibility Lipid bilayer thought to facilitate fusion or budding of membranes Ex Secretionfertilization Self assembly phosphatidylcholine in water forms walls of fluidfilled spherical vesicles called liposomes
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