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University of Guelph
BIOL 1090
Brian Mc Dougall

Bio 1090 FinalDNA StructureFunctionBASIC STRUCTURE Pyrimadines single ring thyminecytosinePurines double ring adenineguanine These nucleotides are connected by phosphodiester bonds DNA is a polymer with nucleotide monomers which are comprised of a phosphate group a 5carbon sugara nitrogenous base DNA strands are polarantiparallel The 5 end has a free phosphate group The 3 end has a free hydroxyl group The double helix is right handed The strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between opposing strandsby hydrophobic interactions between adjacent stacked bases The most common form of DNA is called BDNA There are 2 grooves of different width majorminor Prokaryotic chromosome is highly compact coiled Similar amounts of supercoiling exist in the DNA of bacterialeukaryotic chromosomes The DNA found in mitochondriachloroplasts exist in circular chromosomes resembling those in prokaryotesDNA in all living cells is supercoiled DNA is composed of proteins DNARNA The linker region between nucleosomes is susceptible to digestion by an endonuclease PACKAGING DNAThe first level of condesation is packaging DNA as a negative supercoil into nucleosomes The DNA is wrapped around a nucleosome core of 8 histone proteinsthanchored by a 9The second level of condensation is an additional folding or supercoiling of the 11nm fibre to produce a 30nm fibre the basic structural unit of the metaphase chromosome Driven by nucleosomes interactingth Involves histone H1 the 9 anchor histone The solenoid circularwindingzigzag are the models that describe the structure The third level is attachment of the 30nm fibre at many positions to a nonhistone protein scaffold creates chromosome Lecture 2Chromosomes are protected by telomeres Resist degradation by Dnase Prevent fusion of chromosome ends Facilitate replication of the ends of the linear DNA Centromeres provide the point of attachment of the chromosomes to the microtubules in the mitotic spindle 3 essential regions IIII are conserved regions that bind proteins involved with spindle attachment Region II is 90 adeninethymine More complex in multicellular eukaryotes Binding site for a protein calling CENP GENE EXPRESSIONTRANSFORMATION PRINCIPLE Living IIS capsuleDead mouse Heatkilled IISLive mouse no IIS colonies Living IIR no capsuleLive mouse IIR coloniesLiving IIRHeatkilled IISDead mouse IIS colonies MixtureproteaseIIS colonies MixtureRNaseIIS colonies MixtureDnaseno colonies THERFORE DNA was the reason for the colonies formingAlthough some viruses use RNA as their genetic material HERSHEYCHASE EXPERIMENT First phage bacterial virus were produced in a solution containing radioactively labelled amino acids which resulted in a radioactive protein coat Since the phage injected only its DNA the radioactive protein coat remained on the outside of the cell The researchers noted that the phage that formed in the cell were not radioactive but the surrounding solution was Next they produced phage in a solution containing radioactively labelled deoxyribonucleotides which caused the DNA of the phage to be radioactive They noted at the end of their experiment that the phage that formed in the cell caused the cell to be radioactivenot the surrounding solutionThis proved that DNA was the genetic material that lead to the replication of phage in host cells OVERVIEW DNAtranscriptionRNA transcriptRNA processingmRNATranslationProteinPosttranslationFunction performed by proteinUracil lacks a methyl group used in RNA instead of thymine
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