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Chapter Notes 1,9,11 Quiz 2.docx

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University of Guelph
BIOL 1500

BIO1500 ChapterNotesMbaker06CHAPTER 1 UNIT 2SCIENCE AND THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD11The Process of ScienceScientific Method making observations of the world proposing ideas about how something works testing those ideas and discarding or modifying our ideas in response to the results of a testHypotheses a proposed explanation for one or more observationsoA hypothesis must be testableit must be possible to evaluate a hypotheses through observations of the measureable universe not all hypotheses are testable such as something of the supernatural or statements that are value judgementsoA hypothesis must be falsifiablean observation or set of observations could potentially prove it false Scientific Theory an explanation of a set of related observations based on wellsupported hypothesis from several different independent lines of research Germ Theorythat microorganisms are the cause through infection of some or all human diseasesInductive Reasoning combining a series of specific observations to discern a general principle Deductive Reasoning using a general principle to predict an expected observation the prediction is the result we expect from a hypothesis test ifthen statements12Hypothesis TestingExperimental MethodoSets of actions or observations designed to test specific hypotheses allows a scientist to control the conditions that may affect eh subject of studyoA scientist systematically attempts to eliminate hypotheses that might explain a particular phenomenonoNot all scientific hypotheses can be tested through experimentationoVariablesdata is collected on factors that can change in value under different conditionsBIO1500 ChapterNotesMbaker06Scientists manipulate an independent variable whose value can be freely changed to measure the effect on a dependent variableThe dependent variable may or may not be influenced by changes in the independent variable Example vary individuals vitamin C intake independent and measure their susceptibility to illness on exposure to a cold virus dependentControlled ExperimentsoA control for an experiment is a subject who is similar to an experimental subject except that the control is not exposed to the experimental treatmentIs control and experimental groups differ at the end of a test the difference is likely due to the experimental treatmentEchinacea tea vs sham tea experiment A good control is to treat all subjects identically during the course of the experiment those with the experimental tea and those with the placebosMinimizing Bias in Experimental Design oSubject expectation is a source of bias an individual who knew she was receiving Echinacea tea may have felt confident that she would recover more quicklyBlind Experiment the individual subjects are not aware of exactly what they are predicted to experienceoBias occurs when a researcher makes consistent errors in the measurement and evaluation of resultsObserver BiasDouble Blind Experiment when both researcher subjects and the technicians performing the measurements are unaware of either the hypothesis or whether a subject is in the control of experimental groupUsing Correlation to Test HypothesisoExperiments on Model OrganismsScientists use model organisms when testing hypotheses would raise ethical or practical problems when tested on people model organisms are other animals that are closely related to us evolutionarily
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