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Midterm 1 Review (Units 1 & 2).docx

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BIOL 2400
Cortland Griswold

History of LifeOrigin of UniverseAge of universe13702 billion yearsoEvidenceExpanding Universe Edwin Hubble 1929objects further away are moving farther away at a rate faster than objects closer to usCosmic Microwave Background Radiation Arno PenziasRobert Wilson 1964Big Bang Model Ralph Alpherenergy associated with initial rapid expansion is cosmic microwave radiationOrigin of Solar System and Earth46billion yearoEvidenceRadiometric Dating rate of decay of elements of meteorites and moon rocks use meteorites and moon rocks because volcanic action of Earth alters the datesnew rocks formingOrigin of LifePreBiotic Chemistryelements and molecules that havent yet formed together to generate lifeoMillerUrey Experimentstook compounds present in early earth H2O NH3 H2 CH4 and through chemical reactions of these basic compounds the building blocks of life were produced Amino Acids Adenine Guanine Cyanoacetylene various sugars RiboseoAssumption in the experiment Not much oxygen available in atmospherePreRNA to RNAoAddition of amine bases Adenine Guamine Cytoside UraciloRNA can selfreplicateRNA bases can pair togetheran RNA polymer can act as a template for replicationSelfreplicating molecules can undergo the process of natural selection Once a molecule is broken down and can no longer selfreplicate it goes extinct if a molecule can continue to replicate it can continue to persist through timeRNA to DNA 2Deoxyribose Nucleic AcidoDNA is a product of RNAoChange from OH on 2 of RNA to H on 2 of DNA ribonulecotide reductaseenzyme DNA Vs RNADNA is structurally more stable and can form longer molecules compared to RNA therefore can form more complex organismsRNA is typically a singlestranded molecule DNA is doublestrandedOrigin of Cellular LifeEvidence of cellular life 335 billion years agooStromatolitelike fossilsmodern stromatolites are formed by cyanobacteria but these wouldnt have been formed by cyanobacteria cyanobacteria arose later on1213oC to C ratios in preserved kerogen dating to 385billion years suggest that kerogen was part of a living organism compound would have generated in something that was livingNatural ratio of C12 to C13 is 99C121C13 in living organisms this ratio is higherThree Domains of LifeEukarya share a common ancestor with Archaea before sharing a common ancestor with BacteriaArchaea not recognized until 1970sSplit from common ancestor into bacteria and other lineage 335byaSplit from common ancestor into Eukarya and Archaea 1927byaFeatures Differing the 3 DomainsFeatureBacteriaArchaeaEukaryaChromosome CircularUsually CircularLinear multipleStructureNucleusAbsentAbsentPresent
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