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Midterm 2 Review (Units 3, 4, & 5).docx

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BIOL 2400
Cortland Griswold

Unit 3Population GeneticsPopulation GeneticsThe study of the genetic composition of populations and mechanisms that causechange at the genetic level over time within populationsMosquito Ester AlleleBegan applying insecticdes to coastal regions of southern france in 19691Ester an allele conferring resistance to insecticide1oEster rose to high frequency in coastal areasoSpread to more distant localities from coast but is at lower frequencyAllele FrequenciesProcesses affecting allele frequencies in a populationoNatural selectionoGenetic DriftoDispersalMigrationoMutationMeasures of FitnessSilique NumberFecunditySurvivalViabilityNeanderthal Ancestry in HumansStudies suggest humans expanded from Africa into area occupied by Neanderthals 100000ya and that the 2 population came in contact interbreeding between the 2 lineagesoDNA evidence supports interbreeding we have proportions of DNA segments that are of Neanderthal originoEvidenceAlleles with Neanderthal ancestry affecting hair and skin were adaptive in humansHybrid incompatibilities between Neanderthals and humans reduced occurrence of Neanderthal alleles affecting testes function in humansie Genes involved in sexual function had a much lower shared percentage between Neanderthals and humansTermsGeneA sequence of DNA transcribed into RNALocusA region of DNA can include genes but also nontranscribed regionsAlleleA sequence variant at a genetic locusGenotypeThe full set of alleles at a genetic locus or set of genetic loci also the entire genome of an individualAllele Frequency SLIDE 14 HWLDNNumber of A AllelesA11NNumber of A AllelesA22pFrequency of A AlleleA11Genotype Frequency slide 15 HWLDAllele Frequencies from Genotype Frequencies slide 16 HWLDConceptual Idea of Randomly Drawing an AlleleIf the frequency of A is p what is the probability of randomly drawing an A allele1A11o pprobability of randomly drawing an allele is equal to the frequency of the A1 itemExceptions for Genotype Frequencies TABLE slide 24 of HWLDRandom MatingoHardyWeinberg Theorem
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