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Quiz

BIOM 4070 Study Guide - Hematopoietic Stem Cell, Yolk Sac, Asthma

8 Pages
73 Views
Fall 2016

Department
Biomedical Sciences
Course Code
BIOM 4070
Professor
Brenda L Coomber
Study Guide
Quiz

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Quiz 3 notes
Connective tissue
General characteristics
Made of cells, ground substance, and fibers
Cells do not form junctions
Usually very abundant ECM, relatively few cells
Extracellular matrix
Gives each of CT it’s characteristics
1. Fibers: polymerized proteins (collagen, elastin…)
2. Ground substance: hydrated, contains proteins
a. Glycoproteins: have a carb residue
b. Proteoglycans: multiple GAG’s attached to a protein core
c. GAG’s (glycosaminoglycans): long sulfated or carboxylated sugars, can
exist as polymers by themselves
Cells of connective tissue
1. Resident: fibroblasts, synthesize ECM, maintain CT
2. Transient: leukocytes (some migrate here and stay)
Fibrous connective tissue
1. Loose/areolar: mostly ground substance, minimal fibers
a. Reticular: made of fibroblasts called reticular cells,
synthesize collagen III, appear very light with H&E
because collagen III does not stain well, must use a
silver stain
2. Dense: mostly fibers
a. Irregular: collagen fibers randomly organized
b. Regular: collagen fibers run in same direction
Reticular CT
H&E silver stain for “reticular
fibres” (collagen III)
• collagen III doesn’t stain with H&E
reticular cells are fibroblasts that
make this collagen
• other cells are immune system cells
Note: cells are not
stained
Dense CT
dense
irregular
dense
regular
fibroblast
collagen
bundle
Dense CT
dense
irregular
dense
regular
fibroblast
collagen
bundle
Classification of CT
Junqueira’s Basic Histology, 13th edition
whole mount of “Loose” CT
Figure 19-60 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland
Science 2008)
GAGs & PGs
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
• long, straight, polymers of sulfated or carboxylated sugars
Proteoglycans (PGs)
• multiple GAG molecules attached to a protein core
(PG)
(GAG)
(GAG)
(GAG)
(PG aggregate)
Collagen
90% fibers
Tensile (strong but not stretchy)
Eosiniphilic
Procollagen: 3 proteins, triple helical and globular domains, polymerize into
collagen fibrils outside cell
Alignment and space between heads and tails creates striped appearance
Procollagen fibrils fibers fiber bundles
Collagen II
Fiber forming
Cartilage
Collagen III
Fibril forming
“Reticular fibers”
CT of skin, organs, muscle,
nerves, blood vessels, and lymph tissue
*Collagen I
Most common
Fiber forming
Procollagen all triple helix (no globular regions)
Tensile (very strong)
*Collagen IV
Network forming
Procollagen has globular regions at each end
Binds basal lamina and ECM
Collagen diseases
1. Osteogenesis imperfecta (collagen gene mutations)
2. Rheumatoid arthritis (an immune disease), osteoarthritis (collagen damage by
injury/inflammation)
3. *Scurvy (lack of vitamin C, prevents correct procollagen formation, leads to pain
in old wounds because ECM needs constant turnover to be healthy)
Fibril
Fibre
Fibre Bundle
Fibril
Fibre
(Fibre
Bundle)
procollagen
molecules
Elastin
10% of fibers
Stretchy but not strong
Light refractive, appears shiny/glassy (need real microscope to see this)
Stains black with some special stains
Poorly eosinophilic
Randomly coiled
Straighten when stretched, recoil when released
Produced by fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells
Elastin fibers have core of elastin and surface network of fibrillin
Marfan syndrome: fibrillin mutation, elongated bones, super flexible
joints, aortic aneurism
Ground substance
60-90% water
Turgor pressure (resists compression)
Aqueous environment for diffusion (important for avascular CT)
Slightly basophilic
GAG’s and proteoglycans (net negative charge)
Adipose tissue
Very cellular
Extensive blood supply
Adipocytes (fat cells) found as single cells/small masses in loose CT
Found as large masses in adipose tissue
Differentiate from mesenchymal cells/fibroblasts
Unilocular/white
Triglycerides stored as single lipid droplet in cell
Nucleus pushed to one side
Energy homeostasis, hormone secretion, padding/insulation
Amount associated with appetite and weight
regulation
Balance of FA storage/release
Multilocular/brown
Triglycerides stored in multiple lipid droplets in cell
Round, central nucleus
Obvious cytoplasm, lots of mitochondria
Lipid metabolized in cell for heat production
Uncoupled from ATP metabolism (used to make heat, not energy)
Increased amounts in hibernating animals and neonates
Unilocular (white) Multilocular (brown)
amount associated with
appetite & weight regulation
balanced (?) fatty acid
storage & release
fatty acid metabolism uncoupled
from ATP generation: non-
shivering thermogenesis
hibernating mammals and human
neonates
Adipose Tissue

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Description
find more resources at oneclass.com Quiz 3 notes Connective tissue General characteristics  Made of cells, ground substance, and fibers  Cells do not form junctions • long, straight, polymers of sulfated or  Usually very abundant ECM, relatively few cells • multiple GAG molecules attached to a protein core Extracellular matrix  Gi▯es ea▯h of CT it’s ▯hara▯teristi▯s 1. Fibers: poly▯erized protei▯s ▯▯ollage▯, elasti▯…▯ 2. Ground substance: hydrated, contains proteins a. Glycoproteins: have a carb residue b. Proteoglycans: ▯ultiple GAG’s atta▯hed to a protei▯ ▯ore c. GAG’s ▯glycosaminoglycans): long sulfated or carboxylated sugars, can (© Garland exist as polymers by themselves Cells of connective tissue 1. Resident: fibroblasts, synthesize ECM, maintain CT 2. Transient: leukocytes (some migrate here and stay) Fibrous connective tissue 1. Loose/areolar: mostly ground substance, minimal fibers silver stain for “reticular a. Reticular: made of fibroblasts called reticular cells, synthesize• collagen III doesn’t stain with H&E H&E ” (collagen III) because collagen III does not stain well, must use a silver stain 2. Dense: mostly fibers a. Irregular: collagen fibers randomly organizedlls Junqueira’ b. Regular: collagen fibers run in same direction whole mount of “Loose” CT find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Collagen  90% fibers  Tensile (strong but not stretchy)  Eosiniphilic  Procollagen: 3 proteins, triple helical and globular domains, polymerize into collagen fibrils outside cell  Alignment and space between heads and tails creates striped appearance  Procollagen  fibrils  fibers  fiber bundles Fibril Collagen II  Fiber forming  Cartilage Fibre Collagen III (Fibre  Fibril forming  ▯Reti▯ular fi▯ers▯ Bundle)  CT of skin, organs, muscle, nerves, blood vessels, and lymph tissue *Collagen I  Most common  Fiber forming  Procollagen all triple helix (no globular regions)  Tensile (very strong) *Collagen IV  Network forming  Procollagen has globular regions at each end  Binds basal lamina and ECM Collagen diseases 1. Osteogenesis imperfecta (collagen gene mutations) 2. Rheumatoid arthritis (an immune disease), osteoarthritis (collagen damage by injury/inflammation) 3. *Scurvy (lack of vitamin C, prevents correct procollagen formation, leads to pain in old wounds because ECM needs constant turnover to be healthy) find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Elastin  10% of fibers  Stretchy but not strong  Light refractive, appears shiny/glassy (need real microscope to see this)  Stains black with some special stains  Poorly eosinophilic  Randomly coiled  Straighten when stretched, recoil when released  Produced by fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells  Elastin fibers have core of elastin and surface network of fibrillin  Marfan syndrome: fibrillin mutation, elongated bones, super flexible joints, aortic aneurism Ground substance  60-90% water  Turgor pressure (resists compression)  Aqueous environment for diffusion (important for avascular CT)  Slightly basophilic  GAG’s a▯d proteogly▯a▯s ▯▯et ▯egati▯e ▯harge▯ Adipose tissue  Very cellular  Extensive blood supply  Adipocytes (fat cells) found as single cells/small masses in loose CT  Found as large masses in adipose tissue  Differentiate from mesenchymal cells/fibroblasts Unilocular/white  Triglycerides stored as single lipid droplet in cell  Nucleus pushed to one side  Energy homeostasis, hormone secretion, padding/insulation  Amount associated with appetite and weight regulation  Balance of FA storage/release Multilocular/brown  Triglycerides stored in multiple lipid droplets in cell  Round, central nucleus  Obvious cytoplasm, lots of mitochondria  Lipid metabolized in cell for heat production  Uncoupled from ATP metabolism (used to make heat, not energy)  Increased amounts in hibernating animals and neonates • • • find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Blood  Blood cells and immune cells suspended in plasma (ECM)  Fibers in plasma are soluble (fibrinogen) and become fibrous when coagulation is activated  Blood smears: Wright’s eosi▯ and 2 basic dyes  Do▯’t look like tissue sli▯es ▯e▯ause ▯ells are ▯hole! Components of blood  All blood and immune cells come from bone marrow, stem cells  lineage specific progenitors 1. Formed elements: ▯ot ▯▯hole▯ ▯ells/frag▯e▯ts, ▯o ▯u▯lei a. Erythrocytes and platelets 2. Leukocytes: white blood cells, associated with immunity and inflammation a. Granulocytes: nucleated cells with specific granules b. Agranulocytes: nucleated without granules • also called blood “cells” (RBCs) Erythrocytes • involved in O • involved in O  Most abundant cell type in blood  Bi-concave disks for max SAnt “formed element” in blood (~40% of volume) • most abundant “formed element” in blood (~40% of volume)  O 2CO2exchange, pH balance  Eosinophilic (• homogeneousin) • homogeneous cytoplasm – 30% hemoglobinarger tha▯ platelets  Cell fragment (no nuclei) • present in most tissue sections;  Sickle cell anemia: ▯utatio▯ i▯ hµ▯oglo▯i▯ ge▯e, ▯isshaped RBC’s, i▯▯u▯e to malaria  Found only in blood  Immature RBC just after it loses nucleus = reticulocyte RBC Granulocytic leukocytes  Multi-lobed nucleus  Primary/auzurophilic granules (lysosomes) and secondary/specific granules  Innate immunity and inflammation find more resources at oneclass.com • multi-lobed nucleus; immature version has band-like nucleus • pale, poorly stfind more resources at oneclass.com • specific gr
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