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Quiz

BIOM 4070 Quiz: Quiz 6

7 Pages
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Department
Biomedical Sciences
Course Code
BIOM 4070
Professor
Brenda L Coomber

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Quiz 6
THE URINARY SYSTEM
Overview
4 components
Kidney (2)
Ureter (2)
Bladder
Urethra
Monitors properties of blood
Regulates balance between
water, electrolytes, acids &
bases
Detoxification & excrete bioactive substances
Secrete erythropoietin (stimulates RBC production)
Converts pro-vitamin D3 to active form
Gluconeogenesis
Excretion product = urine
Kidney
Divided into lobes
Covered by fibrous capsule
Hilum: blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics, & ureter enter/exit
Ureter expands into renal pelvis
Divides into major calyces
Subdivide into minor calyces
Cortex = outer region, corpuscles and tubules, blood filtration and some transport
Medulla: inner region, pyramids, thick & thin, ascending & descending loops, urine
concentration
Papilla: tip of each pyramid, connect to minor calyx
Renal column: extensions of cortex that separate each pyramid
Medullary rays: loops & collecting ducts of several nephrons, 400-500/kidney
Circulation
Renal artery hilu → Interlobar arteries (medulla, between lobes → Arcuate arteries
ortioedullar jutio → Interlobular arteries orte → Afferent arterioles feed
gloerular apillaries, larger diaeter & hdrostati pressure prootes filtratio → Efferent
arteriolesPeritubular plexus (around convoluted tubules) and vasa recta (around loop)
A
B
C
D
E
“E”?
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Nephron
Functional unit
Spans cortex & medulla
1 million/kidney
Simple epithelium along length, but types varies with location
Functions
1. Filtration: blood nephron lumen, in glomerulus
2. Secretion: interstitial space nephron lumen, in tubules
3. Reabsorption: nephron lumen interstitial space, in tubules
Renal corpuscle *Filtration
Glomerulus (fenestrated capillary loops) & Boa’s apsule
(double walled epithelium)
Originally a hollow ball of epithelium
During development, capillary ball pushes through ball
forming 2 layers
Parietal layer: outer, simple squamous, becomes cuboidal at PCT
Visceral layer: inner, formed by podocytes and endothelial cells
of capillaries
Filtrate flows through capillary wall, through visceral layer into
capsular space
Tubular pole/urinary pole: filtrate enters proximal convoluted
tubule
Vascular pole: afferent & efferent arterioles enter/exit
glomerulus
Find macula densa to identify this
Podocytes
Modified epithelial cells
Primary processessecondary processespedicles, all covering capillary surfaces
Filtration slits: elongated spaces between pedicles
Slit diaphragms: specialized adherence junctions, permit permeability
Transmembrane proteins, glycoproteins, proteoglycans
Filtration barrier
Fenestrations (small pores) in capillaries
Glomerular basement membrane: main barrier, fused basal
lamina of podocytes and endothelium, collagen IV, GAGs,
proteoglycans, blocks large proteins
Filtration slit diaphragms block small proteins
*CHARGE & SIZE restriction: nothing >70 kDa, no organic anions
s
m
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Description
Quiz 6 Identify the following regions: THE URINARY SYSTEM A Overview − 4 components ⇒ Kidney (2) B ⇒ Ureter (2) ⇒ Bladder C ⇒ Urethra D − Monitors properties of blood ⇒ Regulates balance between water, electrolytes, acids & E bases What major structures are entering & exiting the region “E”? ⇒ Detoxification & excrete bioactive substances ⇒ Secrete erythropoietin (stimulates RBC production) ⇒ Converts pro-vitamin D3 to active form ⇒ Gluconeogenesis − Excretion product = urine Kidney − Divided into lobes − Covered by fibrous capsule − Hilum: blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics, & ureter enter/exit − Ureter expands into renal pelvis − Divides into major calyces − Subdivide into minor calyces − Cortex = outer region, corpuscles and tubules, blood filtration and some transport − Medulla: inner region, pyramids, thick & thin, ascending & descending loops, urine concentration − Papilla: tip of each pyramid, connect to minor calyx − Renal column: extensions of cortex that separate each pyramid − Medullary rays: loops & collecting ducts of several nephrons, 400-500/kidney Circulation Renal artery (hilum) → Interlobar arteries (medulla, between lobes) → Arcuate arteries (corticomedullary junction) → Interlobular arteries (cortex) → Afferent arterioles feed glomerular capillaries, larger diameter & hydrostatic pressure promotes filtration → Efferent arterioles→ Peritubular plexus (around convoluted tubules) and vasa recta (around loop) Nephron − Functional unit − Spans cortex & medulla − 1 million/kidney − Simple epithelium along length, but types varies with location Functions 1. Filtration: blood  nephron lumen, in glomerulus 2. Secretion: interstitial space  nephron lumen, in tubules 3. Reabsorption: nephron lumen  interstitial space, in tubules Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) Renal corpuscle *Filtration − Glomerulus (fenestrated capillary loops) & Bowman’s capsule (double walled epithelium) ⇒ Originally a hollow ball of epithelium ⇒ During development, capillary ball pushes through ball forming 2 layers − Parietal layer: outer, simple squamous, becomes cuboidal at PCT − Visceral layer: inner, formed by podocytes and endothelial cells of capillaries − Filtrate flows through capillary wall, through visceral layer into capsular space − Tubular pole/urinary pole: filtrate enters proximal convoluted tubule − Vascular pole: afferent & efferent arterioles enter/exit glomerulus ⇒ Find macula densa to identify this Podocytes − Modified epithelial cells − Primary processessecondary processespedicles, all covering capillary surfaces − Filtration slits: elonGlomerular filtration barrier has 3 structural elements: − Slit diaphragms: specialized adherence junctions, permit permeability  Transmembrane proteins, glycoproteins, proteoglycans Filtration barrier − Fenestrations (small pores) in capillaries • fenestrations of capillary − Glomerular basement membrane: main barrier, fusedendothelium lamina of podocytes and endothelium, collagen IV, GAGs, proteoglycans, blocks large proteins • glomerular − Filtration slit diaphragms block small proteins basement membrane *CHARGE & SIZE restriction: nothing >70 kDa, no organi• filtration slit diaphragms Filtrate − Water, amino acids, ions, urea, hormones, vitamins, glucose, ketones, small proteins − 180L/day − 20% total plasma filtered, most of this is obviously reabsorbed − Initial filtrate very similar to plasma but with much less protein − Proteinuria: protein in urine, indicates kidney problem (glomerulus too permeable) Mesangial Cells Mesangial cells − Pericyte-like cells (contractile) − Fill spaces between capillaries that don’t have podocytes − Can’t distinguish podocytes from mesangial cells − Mesangium: mesangial cells & surrounding matrix Functions  Physical support Proximal & Distal Convoluted Tubules  Adjust vessel diameter when BP changes (contractile)  Phagocytosis of protein aggregates D: dis Secrete cytokines, prostaglandins, & immune/repair factors convoluted tubule Proximal convoluted tubule − Proximal to glomerulus G: glomeruluss at tubular pole of renal corpuscle − Simple cuboidal epithelium − Fill most of cortex P: pro− Eosinophilic (lots of mitochondria for active transport) convolute& central nuclei tubule− Microvilli in lumen makes it appear “filled”, specialized for absorption U: uri− Interdigitations between cells and invaginations of membranes maximize SA for more transport (indistinct TP: tubular poleies) Reabsorption Arrows: peritubul
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