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BIOM 4070 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Tonicity, Aldosterone, Countercurrent Multiplication

7 pages158 viewsFall 2016

Department
Biomedical Sciences
Course Code
BIOM 4070
Professor
Brenda L Coomber
Study Guide
Quiz

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Quiz 6
THE URINARY SYSTEM
Overview
4 components
Kidney (2)
Ureter (2)
Bladder
Urethra
Monitors properties of blood
Regulates balance between
water, electrolytes, acids &
bases
Detoxification & excrete bioactive substances
Secrete erythropoietin (stimulates RBC production)
Converts pro-vitamin D3 to active form
Gluconeogenesis
Excretion product = urine
Kidney
Divided into lobes
Covered by fibrous capsule
Hilum: blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics, & ureter enter/exit
Ureter expands into renal pelvis
Divides into major calyces
Subdivide into minor calyces
Cortex = outer region, corpuscles and tubules, blood filtration and some transport
Medulla: inner region, pyramids, thick & thin, ascending & descending loops, urine
concentration
Papilla: tip of each pyramid, connect to minor calyx
Renal column: extensions of cortex that separate each pyramid
Medullary rays: loops & collecting ducts of several nephrons, 400-500/kidney
Circulation
Renal artery hilu → Interlobar arteries (medulla, between lobes → Arcuate arteries
ortioedullar jutio → Interlobular arteries orte → Afferent arterioles feed
gloerular apillaries, larger diaeter & hdrostati pressure prootes filtratio → Efferent
arteriolesPeritubular plexus (around convoluted tubules) and vasa recta (around loop)
A
B
C
D
E
“E”?
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Nephron
Functional unit
Spans cortex & medulla
1 million/kidney
Simple epithelium along length, but types varies with location
Functions
1. Filtration: blood nephron lumen, in glomerulus
2. Secretion: interstitial space nephron lumen, in tubules
3. Reabsorption: nephron lumen interstitial space, in tubules
Renal corpuscle *Filtration
Glomerulus (fenestrated capillary loops) & Boa’s apsule
(double walled epithelium)
Originally a hollow ball of epithelium
During development, capillary ball pushes through ball
forming 2 layers
Parietal layer: outer, simple squamous, becomes cuboidal at PCT
Visceral layer: inner, formed by podocytes and endothelial cells
of capillaries
Filtrate flows through capillary wall, through visceral layer into
capsular space
Tubular pole/urinary pole: filtrate enters proximal convoluted
tubule
Vascular pole: afferent & efferent arterioles enter/exit
glomerulus
Find macula densa to identify this
Podocytes
Modified epithelial cells
Primary processessecondary processespedicles, all covering capillary surfaces
Filtration slits: elongated spaces between pedicles
Slit diaphragms: specialized adherence junctions, permit permeability
Transmembrane proteins, glycoproteins, proteoglycans
Filtration barrier
Fenestrations (small pores) in capillaries
Glomerular basement membrane: main barrier, fused basal
lamina of podocytes and endothelium, collagen IV, GAGs,
proteoglycans, blocks large proteins
Filtration slit diaphragms block small proteins
*CHARGE & SIZE restriction: nothing >70 kDa, no organic anions
s
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