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[BIOM 4070] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 53 pages long Study Guide!

53 pages110 viewsFall 2016

Department
Biomedical Sciences
Course Code
BIOM 4070
Professor
Brenda L Coomber
Study Guide
Final

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UofG
BIOM 4070
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Quiz 2
Epithelium and glands
Epithelium
Highly cellular
Aggregates (clumps) of polyhedral (multi-sided) cells
Little extracellular matrix (minimal space between cells)
Lining epithelia line body cavities
Glandular epithelia are infoldings of line epithelia, specialized for secretion
Avascular
Maintains distinct compartments/environments
Chemical separation (selective permeability)
Physical separation (barrier)
Polarized
Apical surface: exposed to free space/cavity
Basal surface: anchored to basal lamina which holds cells to connective
tissue
Different make up inside the cell at each end depending on cell activity
For stratified (multi-layer) cells, the top-most cell layer is the apical end,
use this layer to classify
Classify lining epithelia by…
Number of cell layers
Simple = one layer
Stratified = multiple layers
Pseudostratified = single layer that appears multi-layered due to uneven
distribution of nuclei, only in respiratory system, always have cilia, only columnar
Cell shape
Squamous: flattened, elongated nuclei, width > height
Cuboidal: square, equal height and width
Columnar: tall, height > width, nuclei towards basal surface
Transitional: only in urinary tract, different cell types as you move from basal to
apical layers
Surface specializations
Cilia: thread-like, wispy, only in respiratory tract, move material along free
surface
Microvilli: velvet appearance, smaller than cilia, do not move, increase SA
Keratin: layers of dead cells to provide protection, only stratified squamous cells
have keratin
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Glands
Aggregates of secretory epithelium
Exocrine glands have ducts that empty directly into cavity/surface
Endocrine glands empty into circulatory system
Classify glandular epithelia by…
Morphology
Simple/unbranched glands: only one duct
Straight tubular
Coiled tubular
Acinar
Branched tubular (secretory part is branched, not duct part!)
Branched acinar
Goblet cells
Special simple gland
Secrete mucus
Found individually or can be secretory cell in gland
Nucleus at basal end of cell
Stain like carbohydrates (mucus)
Compound/branched: more than one duct converging into a common duct
Tubular
Acinar
Tubuloacinar (*most complicated)
Mode of secretion
Merocrine
Exocytosis
Protein, mucus, aqueous secretions
Lots of RER
These cells look “normal”
Holocrine
Product is entire degenerated cells
Occurs by apoptosis
Sebaceous glands of skin
Lots of lipid in product
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