Mammalian Physiology - Endocrinology Review

27 Pages

Biomedical Sciences
Course Code
BIOM 3200
Neil Mac Lusky

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Mammalian PhysiologyEndocrinologyEndocrine PhysiologyThe study of structure and function of the endocrine tissues The study of hormones and the action of hormonesThe word ENDOCRINE is derived from the Greek endon within plus krinein to secreteHomeostasisA term coined in the early 20th century by the American physiologist Walter CannonHomeo unchanging stasis static although both are untrue in this case The relative constancy of the chemical composition of the blood despite considerable variations in external conditionsThe lungs kidneys digestive tract and cardiovascular system are all examples of the organssystems that are essential for maintaining homeostasis they allow for influx of O 2nutrients etc and efflux of toxins such as urea CO etc 2Claude Bernard proposed that internal environments are separated from the external by some form of an integument skin mucous membranes etc that limits the transfer of biological materials between the two milieus providing a defense against infectious agents Functions of the skinImportant for the regulation of body temperature in mammalian species Forms an insulation layer fat dermis and fur coat that limits the loss of the heat energy that is generated during cellular metabolismLimit heat loading from external sourcesActs as an evaporative cooling system through its production of sweat enabling the loss of excess heat thus cooling the bloodHomeostatic Regulation ProcessesNervous systemShortterm Rapid response by electrochemical signals through synaptic transmission neuronsPlays a primary role in complex behavioral processes that are responsible for maintaining homeostasis and reproductive functions including avoidance behaviour conspecific group behavior migratory behavior shelter building courtship and mating behavior etcEndocrine systemLongterm Chemical messengers hormones transported in extracellular fluidsRegulates most aspects of metabolism tissue growth and reproduction Responds to various stimuli both rapidly and over extended periods of time and some hormones have residual effects that may alter the function of different tissues long after the circulating levels of hormones decrease or increaseInterrelation between the two The nervous and endocrine systems are interrelatedThe nervous system acts as a bridge between the external environment and the endocrine systemSome neurons neurosecretory cells produce neurohormones released directly into the bloodstreamEndocrine tissues are innervated Thus a part of the nervous system is a part of the endocrine system and vice versa HormonesChemical messengers that are secreted into the extracellular fluid from endocrine secretory cells and exert a physiological control in target cells via receptor proteinsTypes of Hormone 1 Endocrine hormone Secreted into the blood stream and transported to the target cells where it produces its physiological effect 2 Autocrine hormoneRefers to a hormone that is secreted into extracellular fluid and acts upon the cell that produced it Does not enter bloodstream3 Paracrine Hormone Refers to a hormone that exerts its effects on cells near its secretion site excludes neurotransmitters but not on the cell that produced it It acts within the organ where it is producedDoes not enter blood stream4 Neuroendocrine Hormone neurons producing hormones
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