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University of Guelph
CHEM 1040

OWL Assignment #2 Study Sheet Binary Acid Nomenclature Binary compounds are composed of two elements. When one of the elements is hydrogen a binary acid can be formed. Examples of this are HCl o2 H S. When put into water, binary acids give H (aq), which makes the solution acidic. There are two ways to name these compounds: 1. Molecular Name : Hydrogen + nonmetal with ide ending 2. Acid Name : Hydro ____ ic acid. Used for aqueous solutions of the compound. Formul Molecular Acid Name a Name HCl hydrogen hydrochloric chloride acid H2S hydrogen hydrosulfuric sulfide acid There is one additional substance that is named like a binary compound although it is composed of three elements instead of two. HCN = hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid. Below is a list of the acids you should be able to name. Formul Molecular a Name Acid Name hydrogen HCl chloride hydrochloric acid Strong Binary hydrogen Acids HBr hydrobromic acid bromide HI hydrogen iodide hydriodic acid HF hydrogen fluoride hydrofluoric acid Weak Binary H 2 hydrogen sulfide hydrosulfuric acid Acids hydrogen HCN hydrocyanic acid cyanide Oxo Acid Nomenclature Oxo acids are composed of H and an oxygen-containing anion. For example: HNO or3H SO2. 4 If you learn your polyatomic anions, you will be able to name these acids. Recall that oxygen-containing anions end in either ate or ite. If you learn the ate anions, all the rest follow. ate anions form ic acids. HNO =3nitric acid ite anions form ous acids. HNO 2 nitrous acid Below is a list of the oxo acids you should be able to name. Anion Name Anion Formula Acid Name Acid Formula Kind − nitrate NO 3 nitric acid HNO 3 perchlorate ClO4− perchloric acid HClO 4 strong acids 2− sulfate SO 4 sulfuric acid H2SO 4 ate anions acetate CH 3OO − acetic acid CH 3OOH 2− carbonate CO 3 carbonic acid H2CO 3 phosphate PO 4− phosphoric acid H3PO 4 − nitrite NO 2 nitrous acid HNO 2 weak acids hypochlorite ClO− hypochlorous acid HClO ite anions 2− sulfite SO 3 sulfurous acid H2SO 3 phosphite PO 3− phosphorous acid H3PO 3 Finding Formulas From Percent Composition silicon = Si Molar mass = 28.09 g / mol Si chlorine = Cl Molar mass = 35.45 g / mol Cl bromine = Br Molar mass = 79.90 g / mol Br QUESTION 1: Find the empirical formula for this compound. The EMPIRICAL FORMULA gives the smallest whole number ratio of moles of elements in the compound. Percents by weight: 10.85 % Si, 27.40 % Cl, 61.75 % Br In 100 grams of the compound there are: 1 mol Si = 0.3864 mol 10.85 g Si 28.09 g Si Si 1 mol Cl = 0.7728 mol 27.40 g Cl 35.45 g Cl Cl 61.75 g Br 1 mol Br = 0.7728 mol 79.90 g Br Br Divide by the smallest number of moles calculated above to get the lowest mole ratio. 0.3864 moles silicon / 0.3864 = 1.000 moles Si 0.7728 moles chlorine / 0.3864 = 2.000 moles Cl 0.7728 moles bromin
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