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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 1040
Professor
Lori Jones

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SUMMARY OF ORGANIC REACTIONS ADDITION : adding a reagent across a bond. Functional Group Reagent Product Ref. in Organic Chemistry Notes Alkene + HCl or HBr  Alkyl halide Page 38 >C=C< >CH–C(X)< Note: Carbocation intermediate formed (i.e., 3>2>1) due to H grabbing  e ´s & moving to side with the most H’s. Alkene + dilute acid  Alcohol Page 38 >C=C< (i.e.,2H O/H ) >CH–C(OH)< + Note: Carbocation intermediate formed due to H grabbing  electrons and moving to side with the most H’s Alkene + H 2Pt, Pd or Ni  Alkane Page 39 >C=C< >CH–CH< Alkene + Br 2  Dibromoalkane not in notetest for  bonds >C=C< >C(Br)–C(Br)< Alkene + Initiator  Addition polymer Page 39-41 >C=C< Aldehyde/Ketone + H 2  Hydrate Page 45 RCHO or R(CO)R’ RC(OH) 2’ Note: Treat as H OH , where H from water adds to oxygen of carbonyl (Lewis Base) and – OH from water adds to carbon of carbonyl (Lewis Acid). Aldehyde/Ketone + Alcohol  Hemiacetal Page 45 RCHO or R(CO)R’ RC(OH)(OR”)R’ Note: Treat as H OR , where H from the alcohol adds to oxygen of carbonyl (Lewis Base) and – OR adds to carbon of carbonyl (Lewis Acid). OXIDATION : Increases oxygen bonding. Reagents: Cr2O72–/H (also Na2Cr2O7/H or K 2r 2 7H ) Functional Group Reag2–t + Product Ref. in Organic Chemistry Notes Primary Alcohol Cr2O7 /H  Carboxylic acid Page 43 (R–CH –OH) (R–COOH) 2 Primary Alcohol Cr2O72/H +  Aldehyde Page 43 (R–CH 2OH) (mild) (R–CHO) Aldehyde Cr O 2/H +  Carboxylic acid Page 43 2 7 (R–CHO) (R–COOH) 2– + Page 43 Secondary Alcohol Cr2O7 /H  Ketone (R–C(O)–R’) R–CH(OH)–R’ Tertiary Alcohol Cr O 2/H + No reaction Page 43 2 7  R–C(OH)(R’)–R” Tertiary alcohols don’t react b/c there isn’t enough H’s present next to the C with the OH group to form a  bond.
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