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Chemistry exam notes

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Course Code
CHEM 1040
Abdelaziz Houman

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ChemistryDecember0511256 PMQuantum numbersprinciple quantumnrepresents main energy level of an atoms electrons by a number increasing value of n corresponds to increasing values of energy for the electron nIn0n 1 2 3 4Letter code K L M NAngular momentum ltells about shape of electron cloudorbital l0sperical l1dumbell shaped l2 5 variations of shapesDefines orbitalLetter codeS pdl can equal values from 0 n1 ex n2 l01Magnetic quantum determines theof permitted orbitals in any group values range from l to l l2 2 1 01 2 specifies permitted orientations in space of electron cloud tells how many orbitals exist in sub shellsSpin quantum not from Shrodinger s equations limitsof spin energies for an electron to 2 values 12 defines electrons while other Qs Defines electron define orbitalPauli exclusion principleno 2 electrons can have all 4 Qs the same 3 can be the same 1 must be different Hunds ruleelectrons distributed in sub shell to yield maximum unpaired electronsSpin pairan orbital is full2 electrons spinning opposite directions 12 2electrons1sAUFBAU principlegeneralization building up principleelectron structure Angular momentumldetermined by adding electrons 1 at a time until none leftMUST OBEY HUNDS Principle quantum RULE orbitals arranged by increasing energies exception 4s3d fill 4s before 3d when filling 4d loses energy and 3d comes before 4sValence shellorbitals in an atom of highest occupied principle level n and orbitals of partially filled sublevels of the lower principle quantum Valence electronsthose that occupy valence shell orbital all other electrons core electrons1221transition metals dshell and sshell very close when filling dshell energy decreases and falls below sshell3d4sNOT 4s3d425192101Exception Cr Mo W and Cu Ag Au Cr Ar 3d4sAr3d4sCu Ar 3d4s Ar 3d4sFor electron configuration of ionsstart with neutral atom than adjust according to chargeMagnetic PropertiesDiamagentismnot attracted or slightly repelled by magnetic fieldsParamagnetismdrawn into by magnetic fields from unpaired electrons paired electrons cancel each other out electron behaves like magnetslargerof unpaired electrons the larger magnetic momentPeriodic TrendsIncreasing Atomic radiusLR decrease in size same principle shell and increase nuclear charge TB increase in size increase principle shellDecreasingIonization energyenergy required to remove an electron LR increase ionization energy TB decrease ionization energyDecreasingElectron affinityenergy released when neutral atom gains an electron ingas phaseNOT COVALENT Measures tendency to gain electrons large and ve for nonmetals follows trend of ionization energyIncreasing Size and charge ion vs atom removal of electron from neutral atoms results in remaining electrons more tightly held NaNa addition of electrons overall attraction of nucleus for electrons decreases anion larger than atom ClCl223Isolectric seriesradius varies on charge OFNeNaMgAl Ionic radius 1m1Cm Electronegativitypower atom has for attracting electrons COVALENT LR increases TB decreasesdecreasingIncreasing Lewis StructuresUse valence electrons ElectronElectron pairDetermineelectrons1Draw skeleton structure with single bonds2Subtract electrons used from total valence and distribute leftover electrons3Too few electrons use double and triple bonds 4Too many add leftover to centre atom as lone pairs5Formal chargesvon free atom 12 of electrons in bondof electrons in lone pairs when you can write eseveral Lewis structures choose 1 with lowest magnitude of formal charge if same choose 1 with ve on more electronegative atomResonancecant write single Lewis structuretrue state of bonding not correctly represented by ANY Lewis diagram exists between extremesOctet failuresatisfy for more electronegative atom Chemistry 1040 exam review Page 1
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