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CLAS 1000 Final: review for final exam

Classical Studies
Course Code
CLAS 1000
John Walsh
Study Guide

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CLAS*1000 Review for Final exam (11/29 and 12/1)
November 29th, 2017
No questions from first half, however their might be questions about Greece in context of Rome
Began in the Aegean Sea
Cycladic culture is from the east
o Ex oriente lux (light from the east)
o Originated in the east and spread west
Romans were the ultimate end of transmission
Minoan civilisation (2000-1600 BCE)
o Named based on myths of Minos and Pasiphae
o Palace at Knossos
Complexity of the palace may have played a role in the original story of the labyrinth
Wove a story about a complex maze
Center of the labyrinth was the minotaur
Began in the Aegean, Minoan culture flourished and a great thalassocracy was founded
o Cultures downfall might have been due to the explosion of a volcano on the island of Thera
Common pattern: civilizations grow, flourish and then break apart due to some downfall
Minoans flourished and then the Mycenaeans took over
Dark age began around 1100 BCE and ended when homer emerged
o The end of the dark age was marked by the return of literacy
Dark age is considered a period of regression even though technology advanced (bronze to iron weapons)
Livius Andronieus found himself captive in rome as a slave responsible for teaching children
o From Homer, he translated his works
Homer is the beginning of the roman literary period
o Vergil’s Aeneid was the founding piece, from Vergil we get all the major works of the late medieval
and late renaissance period
Periodization: archaic period, classical period, Hellenistic period
o Archaic period is when Greece drags itself out of the dark age
o Classical period, Greek world was invaded by a vast empire from the east
Battle of marathon and battle of Thermopylae
How is it that the Greeks were able to defend two battles against the Persians however they
couldn’t defend themselves against the Romans centuries later?
Herodotus Peloponnesian war and Xenophon
Peloponnesian war Sparta won
o Hellenistic period was after Sparta won
Alexander the great, critically important for the study of rome
He conquered a vast empire: turkey, middle east and Asia as far as India
Alexander conquered the eastern end of the Mediterranean; Hellenised places like
o His conquest of the biblical land meant that for 300 years the biblical land
was heavily under Greek influence
o Why were early Christians writing in Greek?
Because conquest of alexander Hellenised the land of the bible
Reason why new testament is written in Greek
Jesus Christ (of) God son savior (IXOYE)
Greek culture held much important in roman culture
o When Jesus had finished teaching his 12 deciphers, he went from there to
teach the romans
Not long after Alexanders death a certain group invaded the Hellenistic world
o Launched the Romans onto the international scale (pyrrhic wars)
Important in roman history on the country of Egypt
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o Alexander assumed the title pharaoh, Egyptian pharaohs were Greek for so
o Cleopatra’s suicide puts an end to the Hellenistic period
Deeply entwined to roman republic history
Following assassination of Julius Caesar, roman descended
into a period of roman war
o Last year’s saw “Octavian” Caesars name with a man
named Mark Antony
Mark Antony and Cleopatra were lovers, since
he was defeated she decided she had to kill
Greek poleis: city states
o Greeks lived in fiercely independent city states
Athens home of democracy
Sparta home of military oligarchy
Greek warfare: bitter warfare among the poleis
Romans were more successful because they had peace within their empire unlike the
Greeks who had constant warfare with each other due to the differences between
each city state
hoplite phalanx (archaic period)
o Greeks established a dense, linear army of men
slowly over time it was adapted by Macedon
why didn’t the Greeks change this way of fighting? Why did they continue fighting this
Greeks liked unity and continuity (temples were all the same, ionic and doric order
was the same)
o Pampering with the phalanx would change the governance of the poleis
Roman legion triumphed over the phalanx
o Wasn’t strictly military
o Roman army changed tragedy
o Romans were not only victorious militarily but they were victorious because they quickly adapted to
other ways and their open-mindedness allowed them to see the value of things
Hesiod listening to the inspirations of the muse
o Was inspired the muse female spirit of creativity, she whispered to him stuff about the Theogony
(how the world originated)
o This was the cultural lattice work that held together the Greek world (the accepted version that
linked all Hellenistic’s)
Christendom, Muslim world
Religion provided the exterior shield of rome itself linking sense
o Formed a box around the roman world
o Testudo interlocking shields (metaphor for the formative union of the roman empire)
12 Olympians (roman religion protected rome itself, was an example of roman accepting other people’s
ideas as it was based on Greek myth and religion)
o Aphrodite (Venus)
o Apollo (Apollo)
o Ares (Mars)
o Artemis (Diana)
o Athena (Minerva)
o Demeter (Ceres)
o Dionysus (Bacchus)
o Hephaestus (Vulcan)
o Hera (Juno)
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