CLAS 1000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Ostracon, Ancient Greek Temple, Maenad

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Definitions From The Textbook
Fresco painting in watercolour on a wall or ceiling whose mortar or plaster is still fresh and
moist, so that the colours sink in and become more durable
Krater a large deep bowl for mixing wine with water
Tripod a pot or cauldron resting on three legs, often presented as a prize or a votive offering
Stele an upright stone slab, often carved in relief and / or painted for use as a grave marker
Basileus (basileis plural) originally the Mycenaean title referring to a man who held a position
in the palace under the kind, perhaps meaning something like “count” or “duke”, a meaning that
continued into the time of Homer and Hesiod; later used to refer to a foreign monarch, a Spartan
king, or a Greek tyrant
Amphora a large, two-handled jar for storage of wine, olive oil, or other liquids
Agora a centrally located open area of a polis where people could gather for political functions
or for social and commercial purposes
Panhellenic literally “referring to all (pan-) the Greeks (Hellenes),” often used in connection
with the Panhellenic Festivals and Games, which were open to all Greeks and only to Greeks, or
with reference to Panhellenism, the idea that what distinguishes Greeks from barbarians
outweighs what divides Greeks from one another
Terracotta lightly fired, unglazed ceramic clay used for decorative tiles, architectural
decorations, statuary, vases, and so on
Hellenodikai literally “assayers of Greeks,” the title of the judges or umpires who were
responsible for the organization and operation of the Olympic Games
Ageis a divine attribute, usually worn by Athena on her chest, represented as a Grogon’s head
surrounded by scales or fringe, which confers special powers on the wearer
Epithet an adjective or descriptive phrase individuating some quality or attribute which the
speaker or writer regards as characteristic of the person or thing described, for example, “swift-
footed” in the expression “swift-footed Achilles”
Dactylic Hexameter a metrical form in which each line of verse is made up of six (Greek hex)
dactyls (a unit consisting of one long syllable followed by one or two further syllables), a meter
appropriate to epic poetry, prophecies given by the Delphic oracle, and other poetry of a serious
or philosophical character (ex: the poems of Hesiod)
Frieze a horizontal band of decoration, usually either painted or sculpted in relief
Kouros (kouroi plural) an Archaic statue of a naked young man in a standing pose
Kore (korai plural) an Archaic statue of a clothed young woman in a standing pose
Aulos An oboe-like reed instrument, used as an accompaniment for sacrificial ritual, certain
athletic activities, elegiac poetry, and the advance of hoplites into battle
Iambic referring to a metrical form that was considered to approximate to the rhythm of ordinary
speech, generally used in the Archaic Period for invective and satire, but later also used for
epigram and other serious purposes, including the dialogue of drama
Papyrus a march plant native to Egypt; also, the sheets used as a writing surface made by
laying thin strips of the stem of the papyrus plant side by side, with another layer of similar strips
crossing them, and usually a third layer again parallel to the first, the whole being then soaked in
water, pressed together, and dried
Elegiac referring to a metrical form consisting of couplets,, the first line of which is a dactylic
hexameter and the second is a shorter variant of the hexameter, used for funerary epigrams and
for other small-scale poems, often composed for performance in the symposium
Hoplite a heavily armed footed soldier, equipped with helmet, shield, spear, and body armor
covering torso and shins
Phalanx a formation of heavily armed infantrymen (hoplites) drawn up in close order and
carrying spears and overlapping shields
Symposium literally a “drinking together,” a ritualized gathering of privileged males who after
drinking together, drank wine mixed with water and entertained themselves with poetry, music,
games, and sexual activity
Intaglio a figure or design carved into the flat surface of metal, stone, or other hard material, as
opposed to carving in relief
Relief sculpture created in such a way that the figured project toward the viewer from a flat
background, as on most modern coins, in contrast to carving in intaglio
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