Study Guides (390,000)
CA (150,000)
U of G (8,000)
CLAS (40)

CLAS 1000 Final: Ancient Rome Exam Review

Classical Studies
Course Code
CLAS 1000
John Walsh
Study Guide

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 9 pages of the document.
Classical Studies Exam Review
Definitions and Significance:
Gladius Hispaniensis Latin word for “sword”. This sword originally was used by the Spanish,
and during the 3rd century BC, the Romans took the sword and adopted it to suit their army. It
was at least 60cm in length, and used by legionary in the Roman military. It’s significance has to
do with the fact that the Romans were always willing to adopt the best parts of other cultures into
their own and it shows that they were able to see and appreciate value in other nations.
Ludi were public games held by the state for the benefit and entertainment of the Roman
people. Ludi were held in conjunction with, or sometimes as the feature of, Roman festivals, and
were also presented as a part of the cult state.
Paterfamilias the eldest living male member of the household, who had legal power over and
responsibility for those legally defined his property (children, grandchildren, slaves, and
sometimes his wife). This was the male head of the household; a title given to the Roman father
who ruled his family with traditional authority. A Roman male was to be pious, stoic, and stern
Manumission the process of freeing a slave from servitude. A manumitted slave was often
granted citizenship (with some restrictions) but also became the freedperson of his ex-master
Lex Licinia Sextia 376 BC; solved the problems of plebeians wanting the opportunity to be a
consul by allowing one of the two consul positions to go to a plebeian
Important Wars / Time Periods:
753 BCE Founding of the city of Rome:
Aeneas wakes up during the destruction of Troy and is sent by Aphrodite (his mom), the
ghost of Hector, and his wife, to flee troy with his father and son Ascanius (Iulus), to find a
new city
He makes his way to Carthage and meets Queen Dito. He is tempted to stay with her but he
chooses his duty over her and she kills herself, declaring that Carthage and Rome will forever
be enemies (foreshadowing Punic Wars)
Aeneas settles in Latium where he is welcomed by King Latinas, and weds his daughter
Lavinia and founds the city Lavinium
400 years later, Numitor and Amulius (two brothers) were fighting Numitor is the older and
good one and Amulius usurps the throne from Numitor. Numitor’s daughter, Rhea Silvia, was
a threat to Amulius as she could always give birth to heirs of the throne. Amulius forces her to
become a Vestal Virgin, where she is impregnated by Mars. She gives birth to Romulus and
Remus, and sends them in a basket down the Tiber river
Romulus and Remus are found by a she-wolf (Lupa), who takes care of them and raises
them until they are found by Fanstulus. Romulus and Remus are sent by Jupiter to find a new
Auspices (Augury) they use the flight of birds to determine the will of the g-ds; Romulus
follows an eagle and it lands at a spot between 7 hills. Romulus takes this as the centre of
the city, and plows a sacred boundary around the city (the 7 hills). Remus disagrees where
the centre should be, and steps over the sacred boundary. Romulus kills Remus for this,
showing the future ideology that the state is more important than family
Around 753 BCE a community was formed by 7 hill cities, that city being Rome
Romulus invites people to the city the first to come were criminal and refugees, who
became hard-working farmers. This community was largely male so they needed to get
women in order to reproduce
The Sabines were a group with a large female population and Rome invited the Sabines to a
party, where the Romans drew weapons, raped all the women, and forced them into marriage
The Sabines came back a year later to reclaim their women, but the women held up their
babies and themselves as human shields to defend Rome, and thus Rome formed a truce
and integrated the Sabines into their culture

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Classical Studies Exam Review
o This is an important example of the Roman way of integrating culture into their
own, winning favour from others
264-146 BCE Punic Wars:
1. The First Punic Wars 246-241 BCE
The Punic Wars was a series of 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC-
146 BC
The term Punic comes from the Latin word Punicus, meaning “Carthaginian”
The main cause of the Punic Wars was the conflict of interest between the existing
Carthaginian Empire and the expanding Roman Republic
1. The First Punic War 261-241 BC
The First Punic War was largely a naval war
The Romans knew that they could not defeat the Carthaginians in the traditional tactics of
ramming and sinking enemy ships and so they added the corvus
o A bridge that allowed the Romans to turn naval battles into infantry
engagements. The corvus consisted of a long metal pike projecting downwards
at the far end of a ship’s drawbridge attached to the mast foot. The pike would
lodge itself firmly into the wood of the enemy ship’s deck, making escape for the
enemy impossible, providing a stable anchor for the bridge, and allowing
legionaries to board the enemy vessel
This innovative Roman tactic reduced the Carthaginian navy’s advantage in ship-to-ship
engagements (ramming into ships) as had been previously practices
The First Punic War was a nearly unbroken string of Roman victories
Rome was now the most powerful state in the western Mediterranean: its large navy able to
prevent seaborne invasion of Italy, control important sea trade routes, and invade foreign
2. The Second Punic Wars 218-201 BC
This marked the end of major Carthaginian military opposition to Rome
At the end of the First Punic War in 241 BC, Carthage decided to concentrate on controlling
Spain to gain direct control over its mineral resources and to mount an army of the
inhabitants to go against the Roman legions
Hannibal wreaked havoc over all Italy under harsh conditions and no Roman commander
was able to successfully match his army even though they mounted more numerous and
experienced armies
In the end, Roman perseverance was key
Carthage failed to supply Hannibal with needed reinforcements and Rome began to attack
Carthage forcing Hannibal to return and defend it
With a stronger and more experienced army, the Roman commander Scipio was able to
defeat Hannibal and conquer Carthage, ending the war
Carthage was stripped of much of its power and was never again a formidable opponent to
3. The Third Punic Wars 149-146 BC:
This was the result of efforts by Cato the Elder and other hawkish members of the Roman
Senate to convince their colleagues that Carthage, even in its weakened state, was a
continuing threat to Rome’s supremacy in the region
The Romans sent an army to North Africa, beginning the Third Punic War
Carthage withstood the Roman seize for two years become a change or Roman command
put the young general Scipo Aemilianus in charge of the campaign in 147 BC
Ameilianus launched a forceful attack on its harbour side in the spring of 146 BC, pushing
into the city and destroying house after house while pushing enemy troops toward their
After 7 days of horrific bloodshed, the Carthaginians surrendered, obliterating an ancient city
Romans tore it to pieces, not leaving any two stones on top of each other and then salted
over the land so that nothing could grow
The surviving citizens were sold into slavery

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Classical Studies Exam Review
AD 476 The Fall of Rome:
This year was the year in which the Germanic leader Odoacer staged a revolt within Rome,
where Emperor Romulus Augustulus was thrown out of power, marking the end of the
Roman empire (in the West)
While this bloodless coup in 476 is a frequently accepted date for the Fall of Rome and the
beginning of the Middle Ages, it was not, at the time, a major turning point
o Many events and tendencies led up to it and threw were many people who
continued to think of themselves and who continued to be thought of as Romans
Important Authors:
Livy (Titus Livius Patavinus) historian; he wrote a monumental history of the Roman Empire
from its mythological founding in 753 BCE to the time of Augustus. He brought many important
ideas to the Romans
Virgil he was a poet of the Augustan period. He is known for three major works of Latin
literature: the Eclogues, the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. He is traditionally ranked as one of
Rome’s greatest poets. His Aeneid has been considered the national epic of ancient Rome from
the time of its composition to the present day. The Aeneid follows the Trojan refugee Aeneas as
he struggles to fulfill his destiny and arrive on the shores of Italy the founding act of Rome.
Important People:
Lucius Brutus (509 BC) the one who overthrew King Tarquinius Superbus and made the
Roman Republic, after the King’s son Sextus raped Lucretia and he went unpunished for this act.
Lucretia eventually committed suicide, trying to restore her honour. This is significant because
you see the end of the reign of the seven kings and Rome will never again be ruled by kings.
Nerva (96-98 AD) he had an enormous impact despite his short reign. As soon as he was put
into power he publicly swore that no senators would be put to death during his reign in office, he
called an end to trials based on treason, released those who had been imprisoned under these
charges, and granted amnesty to many who had been exiled. He also returned previously
confiscated property by Domitian to their respective families. He also changed the way
succession occurred; he looked at the history of past emperors and saw the children were spoiled
and did not have the morals and were to corrupt to become successful leaders. The emperor
anointed someone based on fitness and qualifications. It’s significant because the period that
follows is one of the best
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version