CLASSICS study guide.docx

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Department
Classical Studies
Course
CLAS 2150
Professor
Andrew Sherwood
Semester
Fall

Description
KEY ERAS: Bronze- 3000-1000 Dark- 1000-750 Archaic- 750-480 Classical- 480-336/323 Hellenistic- 336/323-146 Roman- 146-325 Byzantine- 325-1453 Neolithic period 600-2900 BC - Island in the region of Centeral Macedonia - Earliest Neolithic settlement - Found art from the Nea’s at Knossos - red & white design pattern Sesklo 5000-4000 - village near centeral Greece - Neolithic settlement - Fine glazed cups and bowls Dimini 4000-3000 - Neolithic settlement - Infant burial vases found there Chalcolithic or “Copper Age” - phase of Bronze Age - copper tin & bronze introduced - transition between Neolithic & Bronze Ages Megaron - the great hall of palace complexes. - Open roof, wide space - Minoan order of architechture Cyclades - Greek island group - Former administrative area of Greece - Flat idols carved out of the islands pure white marble - BEFORE Minoans Anatolia - basically Asia Minor Troy/Ilion… City of: Illium - Trojan war took place - Schliemann excavated parts - 9 Troys Tell - artificial hill (ie. Man made) - built up over centuries Hisarlik Tell - place of fortress - modern name for Troy’s hill - Schliemann excavated Schliemann - German excavator - Found Hisarlik - Probably excavated Troy 2 or 3 Syors - island in the Cyclades in the Aegean Sea - port town - philosopher Pherecydes teacher Pythagoras Mochlos - island of Eastern Crete - Minoan settlement - Eastern harbor Daedlus - creator of Labyrinth in which the minotaur is kept - myth: trapped because made labyrinth and then King didn’t want him to tell people, made wings for himself & son- son flew too close to sun Labrys - symmetrical double-headed axe from Crete - oldest symbol of Greeks Labyrinthos - maze form of the word “Labrys” - what Daeadlus made basically Vasiliki - female given name - means royal - Vasiliki Ware is specific name of Minoan site in Eastern Crete - Mottled glaze effects - Experieemnts with controlling color - Elongated spouts Hittite Empire - place - invented chariots - bronze age Zeus - God of all Olympians - Sky, thunder & mythology - Married to Hera or Dodona, consort Dione - Father of Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hermes, Persephone, Dionysus, Perseus, Heracles, Helen of Tryo, Minos, Muses, Ares, Hebe, Hepaestus - Long hair and beard Europa - Phoenician women of high lineage - Obviously continent of Europe taken from her name - Abducted by Zeus in form of white bull, took her to Crete, she is queen cause he bones her - Minoans eventually kidnap her, seeking to avenge the kidnapping of a diff princess Pasiphae - daughter of Helios, the son - mother of Asterion (who was a Minotaur) - mated with a white bull because Poseidon cursed her Minotaur - bull head, man body - center of the labyrinth - killed by Athenian hero Thesueus Ariadne - daughter of Minos king of Crete - her father pt her in labyrinth as sacrafice - helps Theseus defeat the Minotaur Phaedra - daughter of Minos, sister of Ariadne - married to Theseus - fell in love with Hipplytus Androgeos - captured the white bull (Marathonian Bull) - Athenians jealous - They kill him - Son of Minos Aegeus - archaic figure in founding Athens - Aegean Sea named after him - Next to Poseidon, father of Theseus - King of Athens Theseus - founder king of Athens - son of Aethra, fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon - Athenian founder hero - Killed the Minotaur Propylaia - monmental entrance to the Acropolis - Doric Order, a few Ionic columns - Fortification Propylon - eastern enterance of the Roman Agora in Athens - 4 Ionic columns made of gray marble - built in 19-11 BCE Tripartite - means literally split into 3 parts Faience - fine tin-glazed pottery on a delicate pale butt earthenware body Knossos - largest Bronze Age archeological sight at Crete - huge Palaces during new Palace Period - Linear B tablets= Mycenean presence - Minoans inhabited before Myc’s obvi - Abandoned during Late Bronze Age by Min + Myc - Reinhabited years later - Palace at Knossos had a paved road= something special, showing off ($) - Throne room really important= some gods/ goddesses - Frescos everywhere, friezes on the walls Clerestory - Found @ Knossos - Upper level of Roman buildings (public buildings) - Or walls which rise above rooflines of the lower aisles - Piereced with windows - Also had lightwells in addition to the clerestories Phaistos - bronze Age archeological site at Faistos - municipality centeral of Crete - classical coins come from here Phaistos Disc - - disk fired from clay at Minoan Phaistos - Late Minoan Bronze Age - looks like hieroglyphics Pithos - large storage container used for shipping and bulk storage - Bronze Age - Small round handels - Hour glass shaped Linear A - early form of Linear B - Said to be Minoan - Undeciphered writing - Found on Crete Linear B - early Greek - Mycenaean - 1450 BC - found at Knossos Cydonia, Plylos, Thebes and Mycenaea Frescos - mural painting executed upon feshly laid lime plaster Akrotiri (Santorini) - Minoan Bronze Age settlement - Linear A & Frescos - - monkey frescos found there Melos - Greek island in Aegean Sea - Statue of Aphrodite -Minoans invaded Melos during Peloponessian War 416 BCE Palekastro - small village in Crete - Minoans center of TRADE Pilgrim flasks - pots shaped like flat flasks - big, round small handles Sarcophogus - decorated “coffin” Helladic - mainland Greece - Bronze Age 300=1100 Mycenae - home of Myceneans - huge Greek power - invade Minoans - have a huge palace- fortification walls Rhyton - contain which to be drank out of - used in ceremonies - blood, wine, olive oil - Archanes - island on Crete - popular in Middle- Late Minoan Anemospilia - archeological site of an ancient Minaon temple on Crete - could be the place where human sacrafice took place - 2 bodies at alter, one on table, one guy running with knife when earthquake hits.. tryin to sacrafice body to stop earthquake Clytemnestra - wife of Agamemnon who was king of Mycenae - femme fatale- murdered her husband - fucks her husbands cousin when hes at war Pausanias - Traveler and geographer - Wrote Descriptions of Greece Cyrpus - island close to Greece - Mycenean Greeks moved there - Apparently birthplace of Aphrodite and Adonis Dorians - inhabiting Crete - cause an invasion - are the end of Myceneanes - cause the standard of living in Crete to plummet into dark age Thucydides - Greek historican and Athenian general - Peloponnesian War – Sparta and Athens - 411 BC - father of scientific history Achaeans - Homer uses them in Illiad for all Mycenaean era Greeks Chadwick - figured out phonetic values for syllabic sings shown in Linear B Carpenter - contributed to Linear B decipherings Phoenicia - ancient Semetic civilzation Samos - Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea Mykonos - Island, part of the Cyclades Delos - near Mykonos - birthplace of Apollo and Artemis - sanctuary of Zeus Polyphemus - one eyed giant - son of Poseidon - one of the Cyclopses - eats a ton of people, plays huge role in Homer’s Odysseus - Phalanx/ hoplite - military formation - heavy infantry - stay in unit, crushing opponents Kouros or Kouroi - male youth statues in Archaic period - typically marble - life sized.. early examples 3 M Delphi - site of oracle - worship for Apollow Metope - a rectangular archietectural elemnt that fills the space between the two triglyphs in Doric Friezes - Parthenon marbles depicting the battle between Centars and Lapiths is most famous Dreros - post- Minoan archeological sight - place of Temple of Apollo Dephinios Daedalic style - 7 Cen Minoan - Doric Greek mainly spread - Decorative, geometric Naxos - mainland Greece largest island - Cyclades island group in Aegean - Archaic Cycladic culture Amenhotep 2 - son of Thutmose 3 - king/ Pharoh of the 18 dynasty of Egypt - sculptures influenced Greeks.. shows connection - 1427-1401 Souni - two villages in Cyprus Polymedes - worked 600 BC - created statues of athletes Cleobis and Biton - with tense, frozen pose, one leg forward, disproportionate foreshortening, symmetry, and strength - was the SCULPTOR Herodotus - historian th - 5 century BC - “Father of History” Peplos -body-length garment established as typical attire for women in 500 BC Moscophoros - statue of cow-bearer 560 BC - Acropolis of Athens Chilon - Of Sparta
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