CIS 1000 Final: Cis study notes

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University of Guelph
Computing and Information Science
CIS 1000
Zoe Zhu

CIS Final Exam Review Unit 01 - Technology accelerates change through education, medicine, liberty, environmental awareness, and other fields - Social networking brings people together – fights repression and censorship - Crisis-mapping tools allow people to mark potential riots, collapsing buildings, and people in the need of rescue during disasters Computer literacy: being familiar enough with computers that you understand their capabilities and limitations, and that you know how to use them safely and efficiently - suggests you know more than just the parts of the computer Crisis Mapping: The real time gathering, display, and analysis of data during a crisis, usually a natural disaster or a social/political conflict – one of the first major events to use this was Haiti in 2010 The digital divide: The disparity between available technology in different parts of the world QR (Quick response) codes: 2D barcodes with readers available on smartphones and other devices – 2D barcodes can hold a lot more information than 1D barcodes – often used in marketing Kickstarter: a crowd-funding platform that allows people with ideas to ask for funding to pursue them Autonomy: The freedom to work without constant direction and control Mastery: The feeling of confidence and excitement from seeing your own skills progress Purpose: The understanding that you are working for something larger than yourself Reasons to be computer literate: 1. Avoiding hackers and viruses 2. Protecting your privacy 3. Understanding the real risks 4. Using the web wisely 5. Avoiding online annoyances 6. Being able to maintain, upgrade, and troubleshoot your computer Data Mining: Looking at large amounts of data in hopes of observing a pattern – used to plan sales and determine advertising Which is NOT a technology that has been used to deliver assistance during times of crisis? A: Email B: Social Networking C: QR Codes D Ushahidi Social networking tools: A: Have encouraged increased censorship in the United States B: are limited to social dating C: Include software like Microsoft Office and Adobe Illustrator D: Played a part in the revolution in Egypt Which of the following allows retailers to respond to consumer buying patterns? A: Bluetooth technology B: Data mining C: Smart labels D: Outsourcing Computer forensics uses computer systems and technology to: A: Gather potential legal evidence B: Create a crisis map C: Train law enforcement officers to be more effective D: Simulate a person’s anatomical system Unit 02 - A computer is a data processing device that performs four major functions: input, processing, output, and storage - Computers speak in a language of 0s and 1s – called binary - Each 0 and 1 is called a bit - 8 bits is called a byte Input: It gathers data or allows a user to enter data Processing: It processes the data it has and turns it into useful information Output: It displays data and information in a form suitable for the user Storage: It stores data for later use Mainframe computer: supports many users simultaneously Supercomputer: Performs complex calculations extremely fast Embedded computers: Touch our everyday lives in devices ranging from digital cameras, digital recorders, and electronic thermostats. Embedded computers are found in cars as well Binary: Capitals begin with 010 and lower case beings with 011 Kilobyte (KB): 1000 bytes Megabite (MB): 1 million bytes Gigabyte (GB): 1 billion bytes Input devices: - Keyboard - Mouse - Touch screen Output devices: - Monitors - Speakers and earphones - Printers - Plotters - System unit is the main part of the computer o Includes the motherboard, CPU, RAM, hard drive, optical drive, heat sink fan Motherboard: Holds many of the crucial electronic components of the system including - Memory which includes ROM (holds start up instruction) and RAM (stores any files which are currently being used) - Central processing unit (CPU), the brain of the computer - Network interface card (NIC) to connect to the internet - Expansion slots for plug in sound and video card - Ports which provide connectors for other peripherals Random access memory (RAM): is where the programs and data the computer is currently using are stored. RAM is much faster to read from and to write to than the hard drive and other forms of storage - Short distance from the CPU - RAM is a temporary or volatile storage location (Everything will be lost when the computer turns off) - RAM is installed in memory slots Read-only memory (ROM): holds all the instructions the computer needs to start up when its powered on - Instructions stored in ROM are permanent – it is NON volatile The motherboard also has expansion slots for plug in sound and video cards and network interface card (NIC) to allow the computer to connect to the internet Central Processing Unit (CPU) - The brains or nerves of the computer - A piece of hardware that carries out the instructions of a computer program - CPU gets very hot and needs its own cooling system – heat sink fan - CPU speed is measured in units of hertz (Hz) – machine cycles per second - Using 2 processors is referred to as duo-core Secondary Storage - Hard disk drives are usually used - There are also external hard drives, flash drives, flash memory card and optical devices Hard Disk Drives (HDD): - Permanent storage of software and documents - Non-volatile - Has moving parts – will mess them up if they are bumped or dropped Solid-State Drives (SDD): - Preferred option - Have no moving parts so they’re more efficient, run with no noise, emit little heat, require little power - More durable Ports - A port is a place through which a peripheral device attaches to the computer so that data can be exchanged between it and the operating system - Universal serial bus (USB) port: most commonly used to connect input and output devices to the computer - Video port: attaches a monitor to the desktop computer, or a larger display to the laptop - Digital video interface (DVI) ports: connects newer LCD monitors, televisions, DVD players and projectors - High-definition multimedia interface (HDMI): used for HD home theatres – a compact audio-video interface that carries both HD video and uncompressed digital audio in one cable Power Supply - Transforms the wall voltage into voltage required by the computer chips - Cold boot: turning on the computer from a completely turned off state - Warm boot: restarting the computer when it is powered on - Sleep mode: the main method of power management – all of the documents, data and applications you were using remain in RAM – makes them quickly accessible - Hibernate: similar to Sleep except that data is stored on the hard drive instead of in RAM – uses less battery power than Sleep Ergonomics: refers to how you set up your computer and other equipment to minimize your risk of injury or discomfort Which of the following describes the four major functions of a computer? A: Input, Process, Output, Storage The type of computer that you might find in our automobile is: A: Mainframe computer B: Supercomputer C: Embedded computer D: None of the above How many bits are in a byte? A: 8 B: 4 C: 2 D: 6 What is a terabyte? A: One billion bytes B: One trillion bytes C: One trillion bits D: One million bytes How many bytes can represent the word “hello”? A: 5 B: 8 C: 4 D: 2 Which of the following is NOT an input device? A: Monitor B: Digital camera C: Microphone D: Scanner The following are all important to consider when buying a monitor except: A: Aspect ratio B: Viewing angle C: Screen resolution D: Color depth Which of the following stores the startup instructions for the computer? A: ROM B: RAM C: Hard drive D: Motherboard _______ is the abbreviation for the place in the computer where the programs and data the computer is currently using are stored. A: RAM B: CPU C: USB D: ROM The computer port that is used to connect televisions and DVD players is the _____ A: DVI B: LCD C: HDMI D: VGA All of the following are names for a flash drive, EXCEPT ________. A: Hard drive B: Jump drive C: USB drive D: Thumb drive _____ is the applied science concerned with designing and arranging machines and furniture so that people using them aren’t subjected to an uncomfortable or unsafe experience. A: Positioning B: Occupational safety C: Repetitive strain prevention D: Ergonomics Unit 03 - The sheer amount of information on the internet has to be measured in Zettabytes – a term so massive that there is no adequate comparison for it ARPANET: The precursor to the Internet - Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) - The armed forces became concerned that a Soviet attack on their telephone system could completely shut down communication line - In 1969 ARPNET delivered its first message from UCLA to SRI - In 1993 – the National Center for Supercomputing Applications released their web browser Mosaic - the beginning of the Web’s popularity - Web 2.0 – refers to the shift of static webpages to web applications that focused on user interactions Email: - A method of exchanging digital messages between one or more persons - Early versions operated similar to Instant Messaging – both people had to be online at the same time - Now it is a store-and-forward model Instant Messaging: - Enable real time communication over the internet - Often used for small group communications Social Networking: - Variety of different means of communications - Privacy is a major concern Blog: - A public journal posted on the Web - Text and images, usually only one author Streaming: a continuous feed of information to play a video or music as opposed to completely downloading at first MMOs: Massively multiplayer online game – one of the most popular games in the world Common Web Browsers: Internet Explorer, Safari, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome Uniform Resource Locator (URL): A unique address for a location on the Web Protocol: determines the rules by which you will be receiving and sending information to and from the website – generally followed by a colon and two forward slashes The most common protocol is http (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) – allows files to be transferred from a web server to your computer and viewed in a web browser The domain name includes top-level domain. The domain name indicates the website’s host, the location where the website is kept and maintained - The part that follows the dot is top-level domain – indicates what kind of website it is - The path or subdirectory specifies areas or pages inside or a particular domain - This includes the final part, the arguments – specify the actions or settings on that page Three types of links that can be used on the Web: 1. Relative link – takes a location relative to your current location – only the last part of the path changes 2. Root relative link – takes you to a location relative to the root of the website you are on – the entire path changes but the domain remains the same 3. Absolute link – takes you to a particular location on the Web, regardless of where you are – the entire URL changes this time and you are no longer in the same domain Client/Server communication: - Computers talk to each other in turns - One computer is requesting data and services (the client) and another computer is capable of producing them (the server) - When connected to the internet, your computer is given a unique address called an Internet Protocol Address or IP address Broadband: - AKA high speed internet - The common type of broadband connections are DSL (digital subscriber line), cable, fibre-optic cable, and satellite broadband - DSL and cable are the most common - DSL uses phone lines - Cable uses the same cable as TV, but is a separate service - data must be transmitted in both directions - Fibre-optic cable can transmit data at the speed of light since it is made of plastic or glass – it is becoming increasingly They are all examples of Web 2.0 technology except _______ A: Wiki B: Blogging C: E-mail D: Social networking They are all characteristic of a blog except _________ A: Blogs are generally written by a single author B: Blogs are private and require password access C: Blogs are arranged as a listing of entries D: Blogs are used to express opinions When using the Internet for research, you ___________ A: Should evaluate sites for bias and relevance B: Can assume that everything you find is accurate and appropriate C: Can assume that the author is an authority on the subject matter D: Can assume that the links provided on the site are the only additional source of info They are all Internet protocol except ________ A: FTP B: ARPANET C: BitTorrent D: HTTP eBay and Craiglist are examples of what kind of electronic commerce A: B2C B: C2C C: C2B D: B2B Unit 04 Types of Software: System software - The software that helps run the computer - Coordinates instructions between application software and the computer’s hardware devices - System software includes the operating system and utility programs that help manage system resources - Performs tasks such as transferring data between memory and discs and rendering the output onto the display device Application software - Designed to help the user perform single or multiple related tasks System software can run independently of application software, while application software cannot run without the system software - System software is installed along with the operating system - Application software can be installed when the system software is already in place and ready to use - System software requires application software in order to perform services to its users Proprietary software: software you buy Open source software: Free software Software as a service (SaaS): a process in which the vendor hosts the software online and you access the software over the internet without having to install it Productivity software: - Programs that help you work at home, school and the office Functions of the Operating System: - The operating system is responsible for managing the user interface, the processor(s), the memory and flow of data, the hardware and peripherals, and all of the software running on the computer Processor Management: - The processor is the brain of your computer and the operating system is there to manage it - In order to make sure that every program and task on your computer gets the time it needs on a processor, the operating system organizes them based on priority and other varying factors – each part gets a small fraction of time which gives the impression that all of the tasks are happening at once - Some tasks (mouse clicks and key presses) are considered higher priority Paging: When the RAM borrows space from the hard drives and is moving things between this rented space and the RAM as needed – it is much slower than accessing RAM When the swap space runs out and it can’t page anymore, it will give up The operating system (OS) is a collection of programs that control how a computer functions. It is responsible for handling the computer’s available resources Real Time Operating Systems: AKA embedded systems - Generally designed for a very specific purpose and optimized to perform the tasks associated with that purpose very efficiently - Printers, car engines, washing machines, furnaces, freezers Network/Server/Mainframe Operating Systems - Networks use multiuser operating systems and enable multiple users to access a single computer system at a single time o Do work efficiently by managing user requests and network resources - The computer on the network that is running this operating system and managing resources for the network is called the server - There can be multiple servers on a single network UNIX is an example of a multiuser and multitask operating system often used for networks - The UNIX code can be modified to meet the needs of a company or to run on particular hardware - Mainframes are powerful computers, generally owned by large corporations - responsible for managing and storing data from a large number of users Phone operating systems: Symbian by Nokia, Blackberry by Blackberry, Windows Mobile by Microsoft, iOS by Apple, Android by Google, WebOS by palm Personal Computer Operating Systems: Windows, OS X, Linux (open source operating system, with additions from GNU and other sources) – anyone can take the code and modify it to meet their own needs Your computer can have as many operating system as you want The Boot Process Step 1: Activating BIOS (Basic input/output system) – loads the operating system into RAM and allows it to talk to it’s input/output devices BIOS is stores in a species ROM chip on the motherboard Step 2: Power-on self-test POST – the results are compared with configurations permanently stored on CMOS which is a special kind of memory that uses almost no power – if results agree then it carries on as normal, if not you will get an error Step 3: Loading the operating system - Looks for system files and when it finds them it loads them into RAM, once this is complete the kernel is loaded - Kerel is the part of the operating system that deals with the processor and other primary components – remains in RAM for the entire session Step 4: Checking further configuraions and customizations - The operating system checks the registry for the configurations of other system components Safe mode: a special diagnostic mode that disables all but the essential devices, to prevent new hardware or software from stopping you from fixing the problem you are having On most computers the main drive is the C drive Backups Windows: System restore Mac: Time Machine Software that is available on-cloud via the internet is called: A: Proprietary software B: Web-based software C: Productivity software D: Internet software The following are all advantages of using a software suite except _______ A: The programs provide for better integration B: The cost is cheaper than buying programs individually C: The programs share common features such as toolbars D: The programs integrate easily with programs from other software suites What class of software do the image, video, and audio editing belong to? A: Gaming software B: Photo enhancing software C: Production software D: Multimedia software E: System software All of the following are examples of productivity software suites EXCEPT ______ A: Microsoft OneNote B: Microsoft Office C: Apple iWork D: Apache Openoffice Which of the following is not multimedia and entertainment software? A: Drawing software B: Digital audio software C: Productivity software D: Gaming software They are all an example of a smartphone operating system except ______ A: iOS B: Blackberry C: Linux D: Android What is not a key attribute of an operating system? A: Tracks connections to external networks B: Manages memory and storage C: Manages the CPU D: Provides a user interface If your computer can’t store all of the required operating system data in RAM, it can use a temporary file on the hard drive to store data. This is known as a ______ file. A: Non-volatile B: Linux C: Swap D: Thrash Which of the following operating systems are on most tablets? A: Android and iOS Unit 05 The central processing unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer and is responsible for processing data and instructions so that your computer can run software and be genrally useful - The processing power of the CPU determines how fast your coputer can actually run, but it can be limited if other components aren’t powerful enough Random access memory (RAM) is the short-term memory of the computer and is where your computer stores the data and instructions it is using or intends to use in the near future – it is close to the CPU to shorten the time it takes to process data Storage is the long term memory of the computer Storage devices like hard drives and solid state drives allow you to store information for a long period of time – they are optimized for capacity and reliability, not speed Desktop computers - Powerful and reliable - Stationary and heavy - Parts are easily replaced - Tend to last longer Laptop computers - Mobile and light - Weaker and easier to steal - High performance ones have issues with cooling and battery life - Generally small and weak Tablet computers - Touch screens - Lightweight and mobile - Fragile and weak - Not very good at multitasking - Tablet PCs are laptops that turn into tablets when you need them to Moore’s law: every two years, the amount of transistors in a CPU will double Central processing unit (CPU) - Most popular manufacturers are Intel and AMD - Control unit – manages other components of the computer - Arithmetic log unit (ALU)– responsible for calculations and logical comparisons Each follows 4 steps: 1. Fetch: retrieve data or instructions from memory 2. Decode: Translate the data into something the computer can understand 3. Execute: Execute the instruction 4. Store: Store the result of the instruction in memory 3 CPU factors: Clock Speed: - Determines how many instructions your CPU can execute each second - Measured in gigahertz (GHz) – each GHz is one billion steps per second - Typical ones are between 2 and 4 GHz – you can overclock to go faster - Overclocking: sacrifices CPU lifespan – it runs faster than it was made to and it can degrade faster Number of Cores: - Each core is capable of processing instructions independently - 4 core CPU can run 4 programs simultaneously - Parallel program: specifically written to make use of multiple processors at the same time - Hyper threading: Allows the CPU to begin executing an instruction before the previous one is finished Cache memory: - CPU has caches which are a form of RAM but are built much closer or on the CPU - L1 cache, (fastest and smallest), L2 cache, and L3 cache (Slowest and farthest) - More cache memory means it will run more efficiently Windows: task manager OS X: Activity monitor RAM - Random access memory is the short-term memory of your computer - Holds all the information that your computer is currently using - Volatile memory - Millions of times faster than hard drives or solid state drives - Majority is use is DDR3, DDR5 is faster and seen in high end graphics cards (double data rate - ) - Average computer today has 4GB of RAM – fairly easy to replace or add Storage Storage devices are measured by speed and capacity RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) - A way of storing data on multiple connected storage devices RAID 0 is for speed – it splits files into multiple parts and writes each part to a different disk simultaneously, which can dramatically speed up the storage of files RAID 1 is for security – it duplicates the contents of one disk onto another Mechanical hard drives - Have the highest storage capacity of any kind of storage device – exceeding 4TB - Pretty cheap - data is stored on platters Solid State Drives - use electronic memory – no mechanical or moving parts – start up faster, run with no noise, generate very little heat, need much less power Optical drives - Use a laser to read and store information to compact discs - Tiny pits burned into the disc by a laser represent information Video Graphics Card - Turns binary data into images - Generally built with their own RAM, called video memory - Have their own GPU (graphics processing unit) which handles the processing of images and video as opposed to the CPU - Measured by memory, speed, and features What type of storage is SSD? A: video B: Cache C: Volatile D: Nonvolatile When would you want to consider RAID 0 technology? A: When you need to fastest solution for writing data B: When you need an instant back up of your work C: When you only want to have one hard disk drive D: If you think that SSD drives are too expensive CPUs have several internal components, including… A: Level 1 cache memory B: ALU C: Level 2 cache memory D: A control unit E: All of the above How much RAM do you think your computer should have? A: 4GB B: 8GB C: 16GB D: As much as your computer can have installed Moore’s Law predicts that how fast CPU will be after two years? A: 2 times faster B: 3 Times faster C: 4 times faster D: 6 times faster Unit 06 - A network is a group of computers connected through hardware and software so that they can communicate - Each device connected to a network is called a node - Networks allow connected devices to share information and services with one another Network administrator: A person put in charge of maintaining and managing a network Throughput: the rate at which data is currently moving through the network Bandwidth: the maximum speed that data could possibly be moving through the system - both bandwidth and throughput are measured in megabits per second Networks are defined by their architecture which is determined by 4 factors: - The distance between nodes - The network administration - The protocol (rules on how information is exchanged) - The medium (What is used to transfer information) Classifying by distance: WAN (wide area network) - The network spans a large area - The internet is the largest WAN – spanning the entire globe MAN (Metropolitan area network) - The network spans a city or large geographical area LAN (Local area network) - The network spans a small area – from a campus to a single room HAN (home area network) - The network is specifically for a home – usually includes multiple personal computers PAN (personal area network) - Spans a very small area, often between simple smartphones, tablets or laptops Classifying by Administration: Central network - One computer acts as a central node - This is what a client/server network is Local Network - Every computer on the network can act as a client or a server - This is what a P2P network is (most HANs and LANs) The Medium Wired connections – cables going directly from one node to another Twisted pair cable – copper wires surrounded in plastic and wrapped around one another - UTP (unshielded twisted pair) - Ethernet cables are UTP cables and the most common cables used in home networks - Coaxial cable: A single copper wire surrounded by layers of plastic – used for services like cable television - Fiber-optic cable: Glass fibres surrounded in layers of plastic and protective jackets – communicate with light which allows it to read incredibly fast speeds Wireless connections: - Commonly known as Wi-Fi – not an abbreviation, has no real meaning - Uses radio waves to connect computers and other devices The Hardware Network adapter: Transfers information from the format that is understand to a format that can be transferred over the medium – in most devices it is called a network interface card Network navigation: When data is sent through a network it is bundled into packets – each packet has a specific destination – it is the responsibility of network navigation devices to make sure that they arrive Routers: transfer data from one network to another, such as your home network and the internet, or from a wired network to a wireless network Switches: Similar to traffic lights, they make sure that the packets they receive is sent in the right direction without the packets running into each other – routers generally have integrated switches Broadband (high speed internet) - Wired connections that have a fast throughput - There are different types – cable, DSL, fiber-optic, and satellite Cable connection - Uses a coaxial cable – like a cable television - One way connection for TV so you can’t use a TV line to connect to the internet - Instead, you need a special two-way coaxial cable - These cables are shared so at peak hours speed can drop out considerably DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) connection - Twisted-pair cable – like normal phone lines - DSL cables use 3 lines of communication o One is reserved for voice data o Other two allow back and forth data necessary to connect to the internet - In order to use DSL, your phone company must have the infrastructure to support it – standard phone lines don’t work like this Fiber-optic connection - Uses fiber-optic lines, glass fibres around the thickness of human hair that transfer light - Fastest option - Their speed does not decrease over distance Wireless - Nearly every portable device is built with the ability to connect to WiFI - Need a wireless router - Mobile broadband allows you to connect from anywhere There are two common wireless standards are 802.11n and 802.11ac - The difference between them is speed - 802.11ac is faster NAS: Network-attached storage devices – allow you to store network data in a centralized location Home network servers – more sophisticated version of NAS devices – act as both an external hard drive and a server Digital Media Devices – media devices like smart TVs Piggybacking: a term used to describe the act of
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