Key Terms.docx

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University of Guelph
Computing and Information Science
CIS 1000
Zoe Zhu

Key Terms Page 1 of 48KEY TERMSWeek 1 Chapter 1 Why Computers Matter to You Becoming Computer LiterateAA type of computing that relates to emotion or deliberately tries to influence affective computing emotionA combination of our normal sense of the objects around us with an overlay of augmented reality information displayedautonomy The freedom to work without constant direction and control Ccollaborative consumption Joining together as a group to use a specific product more efficientlyThe application of computer systems and techniques to gather potential legal computer forensics evidence a law enforcement specialty used to fight hightech crimeBeing familiar enough with computers that you understand their capabilities and computer literate limitations and know how to use themA term used to describe the ability of the worlds populace to volunteer and creative surplus collaborate on large projectsA tool that collects information from emails text messages blog posts and crisis mapping tool Twitter tweets and maps them making the information instantly publicly availableThe process of taking a task that an employee or a contractor usually performs crowdsourcing such as product design and instead outsourcing that task to a large group of people usually via the Internet DThe process by which great amounts of data are analyzed and investigated The data mining objective is to spot significant patterns or trends within the data that would otherwise not be obviousThe discrepancy between those who have access to the opportunities and digital divide knowledge computers and the Internet offer and those who do not Iinformation technology The set of techniques used in processing and retrieving informationITMmastery The feeling of confidence and excitement from seeing your own skills progress Ooffshore The process of sending jobs formerly performed in the US to other countries P Key Terms Page 2 of 48 purpose The understanding that you are working for something larger than yourselfQA technology that lets any piece of print in the real world host a live link to online QR quick response code information and video content SA means by which people use the Internet to communicate and share information social networking among their immediate friends and meet and connect with others through common interests experiences and friendsThe set of computer programs or instructions that tells the computer what to do software and enables it to perform different tasks spam Unwanted or junk email Week 2 Chapter 2 Looking at Computers Understanding the PartsAA desktop system unit that houses the computers processor memory and monitor allinone computer in a single unitThe set of programs on a computer that helps a user carry out tasks such as word application software processing sending email balancing a budget creating presentations editing photos taking an online course and playing gamesaspect ratio The widthtoheight proportion of a monitor BA digit that corresponds to the on and off states of a computers switches A bit binary digit bit contains a value of either 0 or 1The language computers use to process data into information consisting of only binary language the values 0 and 1A method of optical storage for digital data developed for storing highdefinition Bluray disc media It has the largest storage capacity of all optical storage optionsA type of wireless technology that uses radio waves to transmit data over short distances approximately 30 feet for Bluetooth 1 and 60 feet for Bluetooth 2 Bluetooth Often used to connect peripherals such as printers and keyboards to computers or headsets to cell phonesA measure of the greatest amount of light showing when a monitor is displaying brightness pure white measured as candelas per square meter cdm2 or nitsbyte Eight binary digits bits CThe part of the system unit of a computer that is responsible for data processing central processing unit the brains of the computer it is the largest and most important chip in the CPU or processor computer The CPU controls all the functions performed by the computers other components and processes all the commands issued to it by software instructionsKey Terms Page 3 of 48cold boot The process of starting a computer from a powereddown or off stateA method of optical storage for digital data originally developed for storing digital compact disc CD audioA dataprocessing device that gathers processes outputs and stores data and computer informationA port that enables the computer or other device to be connected to other connectivity port devices or systems such as networks modems and the InternetA measure of the difference in light intensity between the brightest white and the contrast ratio darkest black colors that a monitor can produce If the contrast ratio is too low colors tend to fade when the brightness is adjusted to a high or low setting Ddata Numbers words pictures or sounds that represent facts figures or ideasA computer that is intended for use at a single location A desktop computer desktop computer consists of a case that houses the main components of the computer plus peripheral devicesdigital video or versatile A method of optical storage for digital data that has greater storage capacity than disc DVD compact discsdigital video interface Video interface technology that newer LCD monitors as well as other multimedia DVI devices such as televisions DVD players and projectors use to connect to a PCdrive bay A special shelf inside a computer that is designed to hold storage devices EA specially designed computer chip that resides inside another device such as a embedded computer car These selfcontained computer devices have their own programming and typically neither receive input from users nor interact with other systemsHow a user sets up his or her computer and other equipment to minimize risk of ergonomics injury or discomfortA port that is slightly larger than a standard phone jack and transfers data at Ethernet port speeds of up to 10000 Mbps used to connect a computer to a DSL or cable modem or a networkA circuit board with specific functions that augment the computers basic functions expansion card adapter and provide connections to other devices examples include the sound card and card the video cardAn internal hard drive that is enclosed in a protective case to make it portable the external hard drive drive is connected to the computer with a data transfer cable and is often used to back up data FFireWire 400 IEEE 1394 An interface port that transfers data at 400 MbpsFireWire 800 One of the fastest ports available moving data at 800 MbpsA drive that plugs into a universal serial bus USB port on a computer and stores flash drive data digitally Also called USB drive jump drive or thumb driveA form of portable storage this removable memory card is often used in digital flash memory card cameras portable media players and personal digital assistants PDAs G
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