textbook definitions chpts 1 to 13.pdf

35 Pages

Computing and Information Science
Course Code
CIS 1200
John Saville

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Database databsdetailIntro to Computer Applications Chapter 1: Why Computers Matter to You: Becoming Computer Literate - Computer literate: being familiar enough with computers that you understand their capabilities and limitations - Chart on pg. 4 - Data Mining: process of searching huge amounts of data with the hope of finding a pattern - Bluetooth Technology: A type of wireless communication to transmit the scanned data through radio waves to a terminal (Maxicode in UPS shipping, etc) - Computer forensics: a specialty that analyzes computer systems with specific techniques to gather potential legal evidence - Radio Frequency Identification Tags (RFID): agricultural outbreaks can be managed and minimized. - Patient simulator: life-sized computer-controlled mannequins that can speak, breathe, and blink; Pulse and heartbeat and respond just like humans to procedures such as administration of intravenous drugs - Braingate Neural Interface: implanted  in  the  patient’s  brain,  a  signal  converter   recognizes patterns and then translates them into commands to a robotic arm. - Nanometers: involves the study of molecules and structures (called nanostructures); one billionth of a meter - Nanotechnology: the science of using nanostructures to build devices on an extremely small scale (wrinkle cream, etc) - Affective Computing: is computering that relates to emotion or deliberately tries to influence emotion - Digital Divide: The discrepancy between those who have access to the opportunities and knowledge computers and the internet offer and those who do not. - Digital Home: A home that has televisions and other technological devices all hooked to a center home network. - Offshored: The process of sending jobs previously performed in the U.S. to other countries - Public domain: the status of software that is not protected by copyright. - Software : the set of computer programs or instructions that tells the computer what to do and enables it to perform different tasks - Spam: unwanted or junk email ▯ Having an international population armed with cameras and a means to quickly distribute their video allows the invisible to become visible in many ways. The Witness Project, founded by Peter Gabriel, uses this strategy to stop human rights abuses throughout the world. Their slogan is “See  it.  Film  it.  Change  it.”  And  video  from  the  Witness  Project  has   changed many lives; for example, it contributed to the arrest of warlords in the Democratic Republic of Congo for the recruitment of child soldiers. Chapter 2: The History of the PC - All in one computer: a  desktop  system  unity  that  houses  the  computer’s  processor, monitor, and memory in a single unit - Application software: the set of programs on a computer that helps a user catty out takss such as word processing, sending email, balancing a budget, creating presentations, editing photos, taking an online course, and playing games - Aspect ratio: the width-to-height proportion of a monitor - Binary digit (bit): a digit that corresponds to the on and off states a computers switches; either 0 or 1 - Binary language: language that computers use to process data; 0 or 1 - blue ray disc (BD): method of optical storage for digital data; developed for storing high definition media; largest storage capacity of all optical storage - Bluetooth: a type of wireless technology that uses radio waves to transmit dayta over short distances (30 ft Bluetooth 1, 60 feet Bluetooth 2); often used to connect peripherals such as printers and keyboards to computers or headsets to cell phones - Brightness; measure of the greatest amount of light showing when a monitor is displaying pure white/ candelas per square meter - Byte; eight binary digits (bits) - Compact disc (CD); method of optical storage; originally developed for storing digital audio - Central processing unit (CPU or processer); the part of the system unit of a computer that is responsible for data processing (brains); largest and most important chip in the computer; all processes, commands and functions. - Cold boot; process of starting a computer from a powered down or off state - Connectivity port; a port that enables the computer to be connected to other systems (modems, internet) - Contrast ratio; measure of the difference in light intensity - Cursor control key; set of controls on standard keyboards that moves the cursor; flashing symbol; when next character is to be added - Desktop computer: regular computer; only use in one location - Digital video for versatile disc (DVD); greater storage capacity than CDs - Digital video interface (DVI); video interface technology that newer LCD monitors (and other devices) use to connect to a PC - Drive bay; special shelf in a computer that holds special storage devices - Embedded computer; specially designed computer chip that resides inside another device, such as a car - Ergonomics; how computer is set up to reduce injury, etc - Ethernet port; port that is slightly larger than a standard phone jack and transfers data at speeds of up to 10,000 mbps used to connect a computer to a DSL or cable modem - Expansion card (adapter card); circuit board with specific functions that augment the computer’s  basic  functions  and  provide  connections  to  other  devices  (sound  card,  video   card) - External hard drive; an internal hard drive that is enclosed in a protective case - FireWire 400; interface transport that transfers data at 400 mbps - FireWire 800; fastest interface transport; 800 mbps - Flash drive (jump drive, USB, or thumb drive); drive that plugs into a USB port and stores data - Flash memory card; form of portable storage; removable memory card often in digital cameras, PDAS, etc - Flat-panel monitor; lighter and more energy efficient than CRT monitor, often in notebook computers - Gigabyte (GB); a billion bytes (speed) - Gigahertz (GHz); a billion hertz (physical memory) - Hibernate; power saving mode that saves current state of system into the hard drive - High definition multimedia interface (HDMI); compact audio video interface standard that carries both high definition video and uncompressed digital audio - Impact printer; creates an image by using some mechanism to physically press an inked ribbon against the page, causing the ink to be deposited on the page in the shape desired. These printers are typically loud, but remain in use today because of their unique ability to function with multipart forms - Inkjet printer; non-impact printer that sprays tiny bits of ink - Input device; hardware device to enter data (keyboard, mice) - Internal hard drive; hard drive installed in the system unit - Kilobyte (KB); = one thousand bytes - Laser printer; nonimpact printer quick and quiet high quality printing - Legacy technology; comprises computing devices , software or peripherals and techniques from a previous time that are no longer popular - Liquid crystal display (LCD); technology used in flat panel monitors - Mainframe; large expensive computer that supports hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously and executes different programs at the same time - Megabyte (MB); unit of computer storage; 1 million bytes - Megahertz (MHz); processing speed; 1 million hertz - Modem card; expansion card that provides the computer with a connection to the internet via conventional phone lines - Modem port; port that uses a traditional telephone system - Monitor (display screen); output device - Motherboard; special circuit board in the system unit that contains the CPU, ram, and slots available for expansion, all connecting to it to receive power and communication - Mouse; input device; hardware; enter commands, etc. - Netbook; computing device that runs a full featured operating system but weighs 2 pounds or less - Network interface card (NIC); expansion card that enables a computer to connect to other computers or a cable modem to facilitate a high speed internet connection - Non-volatile storage; permanent storage; read only memory (ROM) - Operating system (OS); the system software that controls the way in which a computer system functions, including the management of hardware, peripherals, and software - Optical drive: a hardware device that uses lasers and lights to read or write on cds, dvds, etc - Optical mouse; mouse that uses internal sensor or laser, sends signals to the computer - Organic light-emitting diode (OLDE) displays; display that uses organize compounds to produce light when exposed to an electric current. Unlike LCDS, OLEDS do not require a backlight to function and draw less power and have a thinner display - Output device; device that sounds processed data and information out of a computer in the form of text, pictures, etc - Peripheral device - Pixel; single point that creates images on a monitor - Plotter; large printer that uses a computer based pen to produce oversize pictures, such as maps and architectural plans - Random access memory (RAM): temporary storage, short term memory, located in a set of chips on the systems units motherboard - Read-only memory (ROM); set of memory chips in motherboard which stores data and instructions that cannot be changed; holds instructions for computer start up - Response time; time it takes for a pixel to change colour; lower response time, better moving images - S-video (super video); a type of technology used to transmit video signals, used on lower LCD monitors and other multimedia - Solid state drive (SSD); drive that uses the same kind of memory that flash drives use but can reach data in a tenth of the time - Sound card; expansion card in motherboard allows sound and mic to work - Stylus; pen for touchscreens - Supercomputer; specially designed computer to perform complex calculations extremely rapidly ; weather forecasting, etc - System unit; metal or plastic that encases the hardware - Tablet PC; notebook with handwriting recognition technology - Terabyte (TB); 1, 099511627..bytes or 2^40 bytes - Thermal printer; melting wax based ink on paper - Touchpad; mouse on laptop/ dif from touchscreen for PDAs - Trackball mouse; mouse with rollerball on top instead of bottom - TrackPoint device; small joystick like nub that enables you to move the cursor with your finger - Universal serial bus port (USB); port that connects to a wide variety of peripheral devices to the computer - Video card; expansion card that translates binary digits to images on screen - Video graphics array (VGA); port that CRT monitor connects - Viewing angle; measured in degrees, to which quality of image degrades to inacceptable levels - Volatile storage; like ram, short term storage, when computer is shut off, volatile storage is emptied - Warm boot; restarting system when its already powered up Chapter 3 - Aggregator; software that gathers all the latest update of web material based on your specifications - Air card; device that enables users to have wireless internet with mobile devices - Boolean operator; a word used to refine logical searches; words like or and or not indicate a relationship between search words - Breadcrumb trail; a hierarchy list that shows the web pages you viewed last on the current site you are viewing - Broadband; high speed internet such as cable, satellite or DSL - Client; a computer that requests information in a client/server network - Consumer to consumer (C2C); ecommerce between consumers such as ebay - Data transfer rate; bandwidth; maximum speed at which data can be transmitted between nodes on a network - Dial-up modem; device that converts signals to telephone lines - Digital subscriber line (DSL); phone line, but internet and phone share the same line - Domain name; part of the URL; 2 parts, a sites host and suffix to what kind of organization - E-mail client; software for email, like Microsoft outlook - Fiber-optic service; internet at the speed of light though glass or plastic fibres - File transfer protocol (FTP); a protocol used to upload and download files from one computer to another over the internet - Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP); protocol that allows for files to be transferred so that you can see them on your computer using a browser - internet backbone; main pathway of the internet traffic where all information flows - Internet protocol address (IP address); a unique set of 4 numbers separated by dots; the means by which all computers connected to the internet identify each other - Internet relay chat (IRC); means of synchronous group communication used in discussion forums - Large scale networking (LSN); program created by us government, the objective is to fund research and development of cutting edge network technologies - Live bookmark; a bookmark that delivers updates to you using RSS - Metasearch engine; dogpile; searches other search engines - Modem; device that translates digital data to analog signal and back again - Network interface card (NIC); expansion card that enables computer to connect to other computers of cables to facilitate high speed internet - Newsgroup; like a forum or discussion board - Path (subdirectory); the information after the slash indicates a particular file or path within the website - Plug in (player); small software program that plugs in to a web browser to enable a specific function - Podcast; a type of digital media consisting of an episodic series of audio, video, PDF, or files subscribed to and downloaded through web syndication or streamed online to a computer or mobile device - Really simple syndication (RSS); a family of web feed formats used to publish frequently updated works—such as blog entries, news headlines, audio, and video—in a standardized format (web feed) - Server; a computer that provides resources for other computers in a network - Social bookmarking (tagging); when you tag things - Social networking; people communicate with their friends and share information or meet others based on interests - Spider; program that constantly collects information on the web, following links in view sites and reading w pages. Spiders get their name because they crawl over the web using  multiple  “legs”  to  visit  sites  simultaneously - Subject directory; a structured outline of web; sites organized by topics and subtopics - Top-level domain; (TLD); the suffix of a URL, like .com which specifies what kind of organization the website is - Uniform resource locator (URL); a  website’s  unique  address - Web 2.0; tools and web-based services that emphasize online collaborations and sharing amongst users - Web browser; software installed on a computer system that allows individuals to locate, view, and navigate the web - Web site; location on the web - Webcast; the broadcast of audio or video content over the internet, unlike a podcast, a webcast is not updated automatically - Wiki; a type of website that allows anyone visiting to change its content - World wide web (WWW); the part of the internet that is used the most; o What distinguishes the web from the rest of the internet ▯ Use of common communication protocols ▯ That enable different computers to and display information in a compatible format ▯ Its use of special links (hyperlinks) that enable users to jump from one place to another on the web Chapter 4 - Accounting Software: An application that helps business owners manage their finances more efficiently by providing tools for tracking accounting transactions such as sales, accounts, receivable, inventory purchases, and accounts payable - Application Software : the set of programs on a computer that helps a user carry out tasks such as word processing, sending email, balancing a budget, presentations, editing photos, playing games - Audio editing software: Programs that preform basic editing tasks on audio files such as beginning or end of a song or cutting a portion from the middle - Beta Version: the second state of software testing. Unlike products in the first, or alpha, state, beta version products - Bloatware: the pre-installed software (often trial versions on a new computer) - Computer Aided Design (CAD): a 3D modeling program used to create automated designs, technical drawings, and model visualizations - Copyleft: a simplified licensing scheme that enables copyright folders to grant cetin rights to a work while retaining other rights - Course management software: A program that provides traditional classroom tools, such as calendars and grade books over the internet, as well as areas for students to exchange ideas and information in chat rooms, discussion boards, and emails - Custom installation: The process of installing only those features of a software program that a user wants on the hard drive - Customer relationship management software (CRM): A business program used for storing sales and contact client information in a central database - Database Software: An electronic filing system best used for larger and more complicated groups of data require more than one table and an the ability to group sort data and generate reports - Desktop Polishing software (DTP): programs for incorporating and arranging graphics and text to produce creative documents - Drawing software (illustration software): programs for creating or editing 2 dimensional line based drawings - Entertainment software: Programs designed to provide people with entertainment; computer games - Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB): A self-regulatory body established in 1994 by the Entertainment Software Association that rates computer and video games according to age appropriateness of content - Financial planning software: Programs  for  managing  finances,  such  as  Intuit’s  Quicken  and   Microsoft Money, which include electronic check book registers and automatic bill payment tools - Freeware: Any copyrighted software that can be used for free - Full Installation: The process of installing all the files and programs from the distribution CD to the  computer’s hard drive - Integrated help: documentation for a software product that is directly built into the software - Integrated software application: A single software program that incorporates the most commonly used tools of many productivity software programs - Macro: A small program that groups a series of commands to run as a single command - Mapping program: software that provides street maps and geographic location - Multimedia software: programs that include image, video, and audio editing software, animation software and other special software required to produce computer games, animations, and movies - Online mapping service: alternative to more traditional mapping software; easily accessible with any internet connection; google maps, etc - Open source software: program code made publicly available for free - Personal information manager software (PIM): programs such as Microsoft outlook that strive to replace the various management tools found on a traditional desk such as calendar ,address book, notepad, etc - Presentation Software: an applications program for creating dynamic slide shoes such as powerpoint - Productivity Software: programs that enable a user to perform various tasks generally required in a home, school, or business (Microsoft word, etc) - Program: series of instructions to be followed by a computer to accomplish a task - Project Management Software: an application program, such as Microsoft project that helps project managers generates charts and tables - Proprietary software: Custom software application that is owned and controlled by the company who created it - Shareware: Software  that  enables  users  to  “test”  the  software by running it for a limited amount of time free of charge - Simulation program: software  used  for  training;  “reality” - Software: the set of computer programs or instructions that tells the computer what to do and perform different tasks - Software as a service (SaaS): Software that is delivered on demand over the internet - Software license: an agreement between the user and the software developer that must be accepted before developing the software - Software piracy: violating a software license agreement by copying an application onto more computers than the licence permits - Software suite: a collection of software programs that have been bundled together as a package - Speech recognition/voice recognition software: software that translates speech into text - Spreadsheet software: an application program such as Excel that enables a user to do calculations and numerical analysis - System requirements: the set of minimum storage, memory capacity and processing standards recommended by the software manufacturer to ensure proper operations of software application - System software: the set of programs that enables a computer’s hardware devices and application software to work together, it includes the operating system and utility programs - Template: a form included in many productivity applications that approved the basic structure for a particular kind of document - Vertical market software: software  that  is  developed  for  and  customized  to  a  specific  industry’s   needs - Virtual reality program: software that turns an artificial environment into a realistic experience - Web-based application: a program that is hosted in a that is hosted on a website and does not require installation on the computer - Web-page authoring software: program you can use to design interacting erb pages without knowing HTML - Wizard: a step by step guide that walks you through the necessary steps to complete a task - Word processing software programs to create and edit written documents Chapter 5 - Application programming interface (API): A block of code in the operating system that software applications need to interact with - Authentication: The process of identifying a computer user based on a login or username and password. The computer system determines whether the computer user is authorized and what level of access is to be granted on the network - Backup and restore utility: A windows utility (found in control panel) that shows the user how to make a duplicate copy of all the data on a hard drive and copy it to another storage device - Basic input/output system (BIOS): a  program  that  manages  the  data  between  a  computer’s   operating system and all the input and output device attached the computer; also responsible for loading the operating stem from its permanent location on the hard drive to RAM - Boot Process: the process for loading the operating system into RAM when the computer is turned on - Command driven interface: Interface between user and computer in which the user enters commands to communicate with the computer system - Device driver: software that facilitates the communication between a device and the operating system - Device manager: a feature in windows OS that allows the user to view an f change the properties of all hardware devices attached to the computer - Directory: A hierarchal structure that include files, folders and rives used to create a more organizes and efficient computer - Disk cleanup: A windows utility that removes unnecessary files from the hard drive - Disk defragmenter: A utility that regroups related pieces of files on the hard drive enabling faster retrieval of the data - Error-checking: a windows utility that looks for lost files and fragments as well as physical errors on a hard drive - Event: mouse click/ respond, etc - Extension (file type): in a file name, the three letters that follow the user supplied file name, .doc, etc - File: collection of related pieces of information stored together for easy reference, in database terminology, a file or table is a group of related records - File allocation table (FAT): An index of all sector numbers that the hard drive stores in a table to keep track of which sectors hold which files - File compression utility: A program that takes out redundancies in a file to reduce the file size - File management: The process by which humans or computer software provide organizational structure  to  a  computer’s  contents - File name: The first part of the label applied to a file; it is generally the name a user assigns to the file when saving it - File path: The exact location of a file, starting with the drive in which the file is located, and including folders and subfolders, C/Users/whatever - Firmware: System software that controls hardware devices - Folder: A collection of files stored on a computer - Gadget: A mini-application that runs on the desktop, offering easy access to frequently used tools (calendar, etc) - Graphical user interface (GUI): Unlike command and menu driven interfaces; display graphics using point and click, easier earlier model. - Interrupt: a signal that tells the operating system that it is in need of immediate attention - Interrupt handler: a special numerical code that prioritizes requests from various devices. These requests  then  are  placed  in  the  interrupt  table  in  the  computer’s  primary  memory - Kernel (supervisor program): The essential component of the operating system that is responsible for managing the processor and all other components of the computer system, Stays in RAM, the entire time, the computer is powered on, the kernel is called memory resident - Last Known Good Configuration: A windows feature that starts the computer by using the registry information that was saved during the last shutdown - Library: in windows 7, a folder that is used to display files from different locations as if they were all stored in a single folder - Linux: an open source operating system based on UNIX. Because of the stable nature of this system, it is often used on webservers - Mac OS: The first commercially available OS to incorporate a graphical interface, (GUI) with user friendly point and click technology - Mainframe: large expensive computer that supports hundreds and thousands of users simultaneously - Menu: A list of commands displayed on the screen - Menu-driver interface: A user interface in which users choose a command from the menu - Microsoft disk operating system (MS – DOS): single-user, single-task operating system, first widely installed OS - Multi-task: ability of an operating system to perform more than one process at a time - Multiuser operating system (network operating system): operating system (IS) that enables more than one user to access the computer system at one time by efficiently juggling al lthe requests from multiple users - Operating System (OS): the system software that controls the wayt in which a computer system functions, including management of hardware - Paging: The process of swapping data or instructions that have been placed in the swap file for later  use  back  into  active    RAM  the  contents  of  the  hard  drive’s  swap  file  then  becomes  less   active data or instructions - Path separator: The backslash / in in Microsoft, and : in UNIX - Platform:  the  combination  of  a  computer’s  operating  system  and  processor  the  two  most   common platforms are PC and Apple - Plug and play (PnP): the technology that enables the operating system, once it is booted up, to recognize automatically any new peripherals and configure them to work with the system - Power-on self-test (POST): the first job the basic input output system performs, ensuring that essential peripheral devices are attached. This process consists of a test on the video card and video memory, memory test to make sure chips are working properly - Pre-emptive multitasking: when the operating system processes the task assigned a higher priority before processing a task that has been assigned a lower priority - Real time operating system (RTOS): a program with a specific purpose that must guarantee certain response times for particular computing tasks, or else the application is useless; robotic equipment - Recycle bin: a folder on a windows desktop in which deleted files from the hard drive are held until permanently purged from the system - Registry: a portion of the hard drive containing all the different configurations (settings) used by the windows operating system as well as by other applications - Ribbon: a group of icons collected for easy access - Root directory: the top level of the filing structure in a computer system. In windows computers, the root directory of the hard drive is represented as C:\ - Safe mode: a special diagnostic mode designed for troubleshooting errors that occur during the boot process - Sector: A portion of a magnetic storage device making up the smallest addressable unit of information. - Server: A server computer is a computer, or series of computers, that link other computers or electronic devices together. - Source code: source code is any collection of computer instructions (possibly with comments) written using some human-readable computer language - Spooler: A computer program that sequences print jobs by temporarily storing them in a buffer and sending each to the printer when the printer is able - Swap file (page file): a space on a hard disk used as the virtual memory extension of a computer's real memory (RAM). - System files: system file is any file with the system attribute turned on. - System restore: System Restore is a Windows utility that allows a user to restore their computer data to a specific former state (known as a restore point) - System software: the operating system and all utility programs that manage computer resources at a low level - Taskbar: in later version of Windows OS, a feature that displays and opens favourite applications for easy access - Task Manager Utility : Windows utility that shows programs currently running and permits you to end nonworking programs with End Task - Task Scheduler Utility: Windows utility that enables you to schedule tasks to run automatically at predetermined times with no interaction necessary on your part - Thrashing: A condition of excessive paging in which the OS becomes sluggish - Toolbar: a group of icons collected for easy access - Track: a concentric circle that serves as a storage are on a hard drive platter - UNIX: an  OS  originally  conceived  in  1969  by  ken  Thompson  for  AT&T’s  Bell  Labs.  In  1974,  the   Unix code was rewritten in the standard programming language C. Today there are various commercial version of UNIX - User interface: part of the operating system that enables users to interact with the computer - Utility program: A small program that performs many of the general housekeeping tasks for the computer, such as system maintenance and file compression - Virtual memory: the space on the hard drive where the  OS  stores  data  if  there  isn’t  enough   RAM to hold all of the programs it is currently trying to run - Widget: a mini application developed for Macintosh platforms - Window: in GUI, a rectangular box that displays programs on the screen - Windows: OS by Microsoft that incorporates user friendly graphical interface - Windows 7: Microsoft OS that builds on the security and user interface upgrades that the windows Vista release provided, . gives users with touch screen ability to use this program - Windows Explorer: main tool for finding, viewing, and managing the contents of your computer by showing the location Chapter 6 - 3D Sound Card: An expansion card that enables a computer to produce sounds that are omnidirectional or three-dimensional - Access Time: The time it takes a storage device to locate its stored data - BD-ROM disc: Blue Ray Disc Read only memory - Benchmarks: a measurement used in comparing software and hardware performances. Benchmarks are created software that are specially designed to push the limits of performance in computers - Bit depth: the number of bits a video card uses to store data about each pixel on the monitor - Blue-ray disc: a method of optical storage for digital data, developed for storing high definition media. It has the largest storage capacity of all optical storage options. - Cache memory: small blocks of memory located directy on smd mext to the CPU that acts as a for frequently used and new data - Clock speed: The steady and constant pace at which a computer goes through machine cycles, measured in hertz (Hz) - Core: A complete processing session from a CPU embedded into one physical chip - CPU usage: the percentage of time a CPU is working - Data transfer rate: (bandwidth) the maximum speed at which data can be transferred at 2 nodes - DVD-RAM: rewriteable - DVD-ROM: only read not written - DVD-R/RW: read/rewrite/ record - DVD+R/RW : read/rewrite / record - External SATA (eSATA): is an interface that provides fast data transfer for external storage devices. Compared to FireWire and USB - Front side bus (FSB): local bus/ The frontside bus is a physical connection that actually connects the processor to most of the other components in the computer, including main memory (RAM), hard drives and the PCI slots - Graphics processing unit (GPU): A specialized logic chip that is dedicated to quickly displaying and calculating visual data, such as shadows, textures, and luminosity - Hard drive: A device that holds all permanently stored programs and data - Head crash: impact of r/w head against magnetic platter of hard drive; often results in data loss - Hyperthreading: A technology that permits quicker processing or by enabling a new set of instructions to start executing before the previous set has finished - Kernel memory: the  memory  that  the  computer’s  operating  system  uses - Latency: the process that occurs after the read/write head of the hard drive locates the correct track, and then waits for the correct sector to spin to the read/write head - Memory module memory card: small circuit board that holds a series of random access memory chips - Moore’s  law: A prediction names after cofounder of Intel; states that the number of transistor on a CPU chip will double every two years - Non-volatile storage: permanent storage, read only ROM - Optical media: portable storage devices, such as CDS, DVDs that use a laser to write data - Physical memory: the amount of random access memory (RAM) that is installed in a computer - Platter: a thin round metallic storage plate stacked onto the hard drive spindle - Random access memory (RAM): the computers temporary storage space is - short term memory is located in a set of chips  on  the  system  unit’s motherboard and its capacity is measured in megabytes or gigabytes - Read/write head: the mechanisms that retrieve (reads and records the magnetic data to and from a data disk. They move from the outer edge of the spinning platters to the centre, up to 50 times per second - Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA): a new standard for connecting hard drives into computer systems. - Seek time: The amount of time that a disk drive's head takes to move to a specific location on a disk - Solid state drive (SSD): a storage device that stores persistent data on solid-state flash memory - Sound card: a component inside the computer that provides audio input and output capabilities. - System evaluation: evaluation of performance, from the perspectives of both developers and users, of complex systems of hardware and software. - Video card (video adapter): an expansion card that is installed inside a system unit to translate binary data into the images shown on the monitor - Video memory: RAM that is included in part of the video card - Volatile storage: temporary storage as in RAM when the power is off, the data in volatile storage is cleaned out Chapter 7 - 802.11 standard WiFi: A wireless standard established in 1997 by the institute of electrical and electronics engineers, also known as Wifi Wireless Fidelity. It enables wireless network devices to work seamlessly with other networks and devices - Backward compatibility: the accommodation of current devices being able to use previously issued software standards in in addition to the current standards - Cat 6 table: a UTP cable type that provides more than 1 GB of throughput - Client: a computer that requests information from a server in a client/server network - Client/server network: a network consisting of a client computer and a server computer, in which client requests information and server gives info. - Coaxial cable: a single copper wire surrounded by b layers of plastic installation; used mainly in cable TV and cable internet - Data transfer rate (bandwidth): the maximum speed in which data can be transmitted between two nodes on a network usually measured in megabits per second (Mbps) - Ethernet network: a network that uses the Ethernet protocol; by means of which the nodes of network communicate - Fiber-optic cable: a cable that transmits data close to the speed of light along glass or plastic fibres - Firewall: a software program that or hardware device designed to prevent unauthorized access to computers or networks - Firmware: system software that controls hardware devices - Gigabit Ethernet: the most commonly used wired Ethernet standard deployed in devices designed for home networks which provides bandwidth of up to 1 Gbps - Home area network (HAN): a network located in a home that is used to connect all of its digital devices - Home network server: a device designed to store media, share media across the network, and back up files on computers connected to a human network. - Local area network (LAN): a network in which the nodes are located within a small geographic area. - Media access control (MAC address): a physical address, similar to a serial number on a n appliance that is assigned to each network adapter; it is made up of sic 2-digit characters such as 91:40:44:79:as - Metropolitan area network (MAN): a wide area network (WAN)that links users in a specific geographic area - Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) network: a design in newer routers that provides for faster wireless transmission by utilizing more than one antenna to receive and transmit data - Network adapter: a device that enables the computer (or peripheral) to communicate with the network of using a common data communication language or protocol - Network administration: someone who has training in computer and peripheral maintenance and repair, network design, and the installation of network software, installs new equipment, configures computers for users, repairs equipment, and assigns network access to users. - Network attached storage device (NAS): a specialized computing device designed to store and manage network data - Network Architecture: the design on a computer network; includes physical and logical design - Network Interface Card (NIC): an expansion card that enables a computer to connect other computers or to a cable modem to facilitate a high-speed internet connection - Network navigation device: a device on a network such as a router, hub, and a switch that moves data signals around the network - Network Operating System (NOS):software that handles requests for information, internet access, and the use of peripherals for the rest of the network nodes - Network Ready device: a device (such as printer or external hard drive)that can be attached to a network instead of needing to be attached to a computer on the network - Node: a device connected to a network such as a computer, a peripheral (such as a printer), or a communications device such as a modem - Packet: a small segment of data that is bundled for sending over transmission media. Each packet contains the address of the computer or peripheral device which is being sent - Peer to peer (P2P) network: a network in which each node connected to the network can communicate directly with every other node on the network. - Router: A device that forwards data packets to parts of a computer network - Server: a computer that provides resources to other computers on a network - Service set identifier (SSID): a network name that wireless routers use to identify themselves - Switch: a device for transmitting data on a network. A switch makes decisions based on the media access control (MAC) - Throughput: The amount of material or items passing through a system or process - Transceiver: A device that can both transmit and receive communications, in particular a combined radio transmitter and receiver. - Transmission Media: Anything such as wire, coaxial cable, fiber optics, air or vacuum, that is used to carry a signal. - Twisted-pair cable: Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors (the forward and return conductors of a single circuit) are twisted. - Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable: A cable that is made of one or more twisted pairs of wires and is not surrounded by a metal shield. - Wide Area Network (WAN): A computer network in which the computers connected may be far apart, generally having a radius of half a mile or more. - WiFi: the 802.11 standard for wireless data transmission established by the institute of electrical and electronic engineers (IEEE) - Wireless Range Extender: A device that amplifies your wireless signal to get it out to parts of your home that are experiencing poor connectivity Chapter 8 - Analog: waves that illustrate the loudness of a sound or the brightness of a colour in an image at a given point in time - Analog to digital converter: converts analog signals into digital signals - Base transceiver system: a large communication tower with transceivers, antennas and amplifiers. - Codec: a rule implemented in either software or hardware which squeezes a given amount of audio and video information into less space - Data plan: a connectivity plan or text message plan from cell phone, etc. - Derivative work: intellectual properties that are based on an individual work but are modified in some way. - Digital signal processor: a specialized chip that processes digital information that transmits signals very quickly - Flash memory: portable removable memory - Global positioning system (GPS): a system of 21 satellites (plus 3 working spares); built and operated by the U.S. military that constantly orbit the earth. They provide information to GPS-capable devices to locate locations on earth. - Internet Tablet: a very light portable computing device without a keyboard - Microbrowser: software that makes it possible to connect to the internet from a PDA/smartphone - Mobile Switching center: a center station that receives cell phone requests from a base station - Multimedia message service (MMS): an extension of short message service (SMS), that enables messages to include sound, images, text and video from a cell phone/PDA - Netbook: A computing device that runs a full=featured operating system but weighs two pounds or less - Portable media player (PMP): a small portable device like an iPod that enables you to carry your mp3s or other media files around with you. - Resolution: the clearness or sharpness of an image which is comprised of the number of pixels displayed on the screen - Sampling rate: the number of times per second a signal is measured and converted to a digital value. Sampling rates are measured in kilobits per second - Short message service (SMS): technology that allows short text messages up to 160 characters to be sent over mobile networks - Smartphone: a device that combines the functionality of a cell phone, a PMP to be sent over mobile networks - Syncing (for synchronizing): the process of updating data on portable devices such as a cell phone or iPod, and computer so that they contain the same data - Telephony: the use of equipment to provide voice communications over a distance - Ubiquitous computing: the condition in which computing is so woven into the fabric of everyday life that it becomes indistinguishable from it. - VoIP (voice over internet protocol) -
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