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Computing and Information Science
CIS 2050
Garvin Blair

CIS*2050 Study Notes Unit 1 Social Media Video 2013 – YouTube:  Facebook has 1 billion members making it the third largest country in the world under China and India, and above the USA  Over 50% of the world‘s population is under 30 years old  Each day 20% of Google searches have never been searched before  In 10 years over 40% of the Fortune 500 will no longer be here  Social Media has become the #1 activity on the Web  Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and Google are NOT welcome in China  1 in 5 couples meet online and 3 in 5 gay couples meet online  1 in 5 divorces are blamed on Facebook  The Ford Explorer Launch on Facebook generated more traffic than a Super Bowl Ad  Generation Y and Z consider e-mail passé (@)  Some universities have stopped distributing e-mail accounts  Kindergartens are learning on iPads  69% of parents are ―friends‖ with their children on social media  92% of children under the age of 2 have a Digital Shadow  Every second 2 new members join Linkedin, that‘s like the entire enrolment of the Ivy league joining Linkedin everyday  Social gamers will buy $6 billion in virtual goods by 2013  Moviegoers will buy $2.5 billion in real goods  YouTube is the 2 largest search engine in the world  Every minute 72 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube  If Wikipedia were made into a book it would be 2.25 million pages long  97% of Pinterest fans are women  53% of people on Twitter recommend products in their Tweets  90% of consumers trust peer recommendations, only 14% trust advertisements  Socialnomics = Word of Mouth on Digital Steroids  New Yorkers received tweets about an east coast earthquake 30 seconds before they felt it  We will no longer search for products and services…they will find us via social media.  93% of marketers use social media for business  ―The ROI of Social Media is your business will still exist in 5 years.‖ – Erik Qualman  Lady Gaga, Justin Bieber and Katy Perry have more Twitter followers than the entire populations of Germany, Turkey, South Africa, Canada, Argentina, and Egypt  Babies in Egypt have been named Facebook and Twitter He Sent the First Text Message 20 Years Ago:  Mike Papworth of Montreal sent the first text message 20 years ago  The 22-year-old engineer on the job at a software company in England one December was assigned to send a text message which said ―Merry Christmas‖  ―What has God wrought.‖ Which Samuel Morse composed for his first telegraph message  Alexander Graham Bell‘s telephone message was ―Mr. Watson, come here‖  In the two decades since, text messaging – or SMS, for short message service – has brought down U.S. legislators, spawned political intrigue, and been used to set up trysts and to vote for TV contestants  Texts helped organize the protests of the Arab Spring and connect rebels in Syria; one photograph shows a Syrian insurgent holding a machine gun in one hand, a cellphone with his thumb poised over it in the other  On Dec. 3, 1992, Mr. Papworth was seated before a computer terminal in a machinery room for the Sema company in Newbury, west of London, about to test a new messaging system for the Vodafone network thumb poised over it in the other  Vodafone was having a Christmas party in a separate building, and Mr. Papworth, surrounded by colleagues, got down to work. He typed out the 14-character yuletide greeting to a company official at the party and hit ―send‖  ―Back then, it was just intended to be used like an executive pager, to get a hold of people on the road,‖ he said  It would take another year before phone-to-phone texting began, and since then, texting has exploded. Canadians send 268 million text messages every day; they sent 23 billion in the first quarter of 2012  94 per cent of Canadian mobile subscribers aged 18 to 24 send text messages  Text messaging is used as a political and fundraising tool; relief agencies collected funds through text donations after the Haiti earthquake and the Japan tsunami. Texting has empowered activists and grassroots movements and helped mobilize street protests around the globe. In Montreal, students used text messages to assemble masses of people during the street demonstrations that dominated the city for months this year  U.S. congressmen have resigned for sending sexually explicit texts to under-aged pages. British Prime Minister David Cameron was in hot water for embarrassing text messages sent to former newspaper executive Rebekah Brooks, a central figure in Britain‘s telephone-hacking scandal  Some see texting as responsible for a decline in civilities and people‘s ability to hold face-to-face conversations. People text in meetings, on dates, at dinner. In one study of 269 U.S. college students, 91 per cent said they texted during class  Quebec entertainer and Radio-Canada television host Michel Barrette decided to speak out about the dangers of walking and texting this week after his son was struck by a car while crossing Sherbrooke Street in Montreal on Monday. The 20-year-old was texting and wearing earphones  It is so common partly because it is democratic: sending a text is cheaper than making a phone call in many parts of the world. Someone can text a family member in an African village or Syrian outpost as easily as in downtown Montreal or Calgary  He has been described as an accidental Neil Armstrong; even if he sent one small text for a man, and took one giant communications leap for humankind, he still would not tamper with his initial Christmas message  ―If you leave it up to an engineer to decide what kind of message to send,‖ he said, ―you‘re probably going to get ‗Test, test, test.‘ ‖ Don Norman’s “The three ways that good design makes you happy(video) The Dream of The Medical Tricorder  medical tricorder—a hand-held computer with a detachable sensor that is normally used by Dr McCoy himself to diagnose others.  the medical tricorder was one of many imaginary future technologies featured in ―Star Trek‖.  X Prize Foundation, an organisation that aims to spur innovation by offering cash prizes.  The goal is to create a mobile platform that will enable people to diagnose a set of 15 conditions, including diseases as varied as pneumonia, diabetes and sleep apnoea, without having to rely on a doctor or nurse.  Many doctors do not believe that patients can be trusted with their own medical data and are reluctant to give them access to it, explains Eric Topol, a cardiologist and the author of ―The Creative Destruction of Medicine‖.  Making self-service diagnostic technology cheaper and more widely available would, however, have enormous benefits in both rich and poor parts of the world. The Association of American Medical Colleges projects that America could have 90,000 doctors fewer than it needs by 2020,  There are also far fewer doctors per capita: around two doctors per 10,000 people in Africa as a whole in 2010, compared with 33 in Europe.  The prospects for creating a medical tricorder have been boosted enormously by the spread of mobile phones. There are now more than 6 billion in use around the world, of which around 1 billion are smartphones—in effect, powerful, internet-capable pocket computers.  According to research2guidance, a consultancy, global sales of mobile-health apps will increase from $718m in 2011 to $1.3 billion this year.  A review is deemed necessary only for mobile-health apps that are used in conjunction with already regulated medical devices, or that would transform a mobile device, such as a smartphone or tablet, into a regulated medical device, typically in conjunction with sensors or attachments that help with diagnosis or treatment.  The amount of money flowing into digital-health start-ups is rising fast. Rock Health, a non-profit incubator in San Francisco that tracks deals in this field, says 128 venture- capital firms invested a total of $1.1 billion in more than 100 digital-health firms in the first nine months of 2012, an increase of 70% over the $626m invested in the same period in 2011. The number of deals rose by 84%.  A hand-held ultrasonic probe plugs into a smartphone, which generates and displays an image. It costs $7,500, a fraction of the price of a conventional ultrasound.  Another smartphone attachment is the iBGStar, a sleek glucose-monitoring device for diabetics that plugs into an iPhone. Sold by Sanofi, a French drugs giant, it measures glucose levels in blood using a technology called WaveSense, developed by AgaMatrix, a firm based in Salem, New Hampshire.  The CellScope(boss Erik Douglas) is an attachment that turns a smartphone into a microscope.  The first is an otoscope (a device for looking inside the ear) that clips onto an iPhone. It could be used by doctors for diagnosis and visual record-keeping, or by parents to transmit images to paediatricians for the remote diagnosis of children‘s ear infections, which cause millions of visits to the doctor each year.  The firm that is making the most tricorder-like gizmo is arguably Scanadu, based in Mountain View, California, which was among the first companies to enter the Tricorder X Prize competition. Its device, like Dr McCoy‘s, consists of a small hand-held sensor unit that communicates wirelessly with a display unit (in this case, a smartphone). The sensor unit, called Scout, is placed in contact with the patient‘s temple and detects a range of vital signs, including heart and respiration rate, blood oxygenation, pulse transit time and temperature. The current prototype includes electrodes to measure the electrical signals of the heart and an infra-red temperature sensor, among other things. A smartphone app displays and stores the data.  So far the only blockbuster medical device to have become commonplace in the home is the thermometer, says Scanadu‘s boss, Walter de Brouwer. Can Tablet Screens Disrupt Sleep?  Mariana Figueiro led a team of scientists who found that exposure to the light from self- luminous displays, such as Apple iPads, could be "linked to increased risk for sleep disorders because these devices emit optical radiation at short wavelengths, close to the peak sensitivity of melatonin suppression  Melatonin is a hormone used by the body as a biological indicator of how dark it is outside.  In Figueiro's experiment, carried out on 13 volunteers aged around 20, the scientists found that two hours of iPad use before bedtime suppressed the body's melatonin levels by around 23%  Melatonin is not a sleep hormone – what it does is provide a biological representation of the dark. There is no empirical evidence that suggests that lower levels of melatonin will have a direct effect on the sleep axis.  In Figueiro's study, the participants experienced light exposure levels that ranged from 5 to 50 lux. Foster said a person would need around 500 to 1,000 lux to shift their circadian clocks. I Need an App for my iPad Habit  Since then people have bought more than 55 million of them – iPads are now the fastest- selling non-phone electronic devices in the world. They‘re outselling Apple‘s own computers by 2 to 1. Some people think they‘ll soon be more popular than PCs.  What makes my iPad so addictive? Human beings love novelty and stimulation, and the iPad provides an inexhaustible supply. Unlike sloths (but like orangutans, who also love to play with iPads), our boredom thresholds are very low. Another Game of Thrones  The tech industry has a history of bitter rivalries: IBM and Apple in the 1980s; Microsoft and Netscape in the 1990s.  Three of the big four are still run by men who made their billions as founder, or co- founder, of their empires—Amazon‘s Jeff Bezos, Google‘s Larry Page and Facebook‘s Mark Zuckerberg. And although Jobs no longer rules Apple, he groomed Tim Cook, his successor as chief executive.  Apple, the oldest of the quartet, was founded in 1976  It has reinforced its defences by annexing other services that help find things, for instance by buying ITA Software, a firm that provides flight data and other travel information.  Google snapped up the firm that created Android in 2005  According to IDC, a market researcher, Android was the system of choice for three- quarters of the 181m smartphones shipped in the third quarter of 2012. Google claims it is activating 1.3m Android devices a day.  30% of America‘s online shoppers begin their search for a product at Amazon  Mr Zuckerberg recently said at a conference that, thanks to folk looking for friends and other things, the social network was handling ―on the order of a billion queries a day already, and we‘re basically not even trying.‖  But last year 37% of Amazon‘s $48 billion revenue still came from media, both physical and digital  Amazon accounted for some two-thirds of all digital-book downloads in America last year. Apple accounted for just 5%,  Google‘s YouTube business dominates the world of user-generated video, but the company has struggled to develop a compelling alternative to both Amazon‘s digital fare and iTunes. In March it finally brought together its disparate offerings in music, e-books and other areas as part of a new online store, dubbed Google Play  Its margins on iPhones are so good that Asymco, a market-research firm, reckons the company accounted for 60% of the total profits made by the mobile-phone industry in the third quarter of 2012, even though it accounted for just 16% of phone shipments during that period.  To begin with it was happy for Android phones and tablets all to be made by others, but in 2011 it decided to splash out $12.5 billion on Motorola Mobility, a handset-maker among other things.  Microsoft, which in America is now number two in search after Google, has a willing (and desperate) vassal in Nokia, a phonemaker, and a new mobile operating system.  This seems similar to Amazon‘s hugely successful ―Prime‖ service, which costs $79 a year to join in America  At $69 billion UPS has a market value less than a third of Google‘s; it is valued at less than twice the search giant‘s cash pile.  Some companies, including ones with links to Microsoft, have accused the search firm of unfairly promoting its own services, such as Google+, in search results. They also claim that it uses content from competitors without permission, and that it has struck anti- competitive deals in search advertising. The firm is under fire for allegedly using smartphone patents to stifle competition.  Apple‘s controversial decision earlier this year to take Google Maps out of iOS and replace it with the company‘s own, flawed mapping product is another attempt to provide ways of finding things that are Google independent. Unit 2 Google’s Driverless Car Draws Political Power  Overall, Google spent nearly $9 million in the first half of 2012 lobbying in Washington for a wide variety of issues, including speaking to U.S. Department of Transportation officials and lawmakers about autonomous vehicle technology, according to federal records, nearing the $9.68 million it spent on lobbying in all of 2011.  Google began testing self-driving cars in 2009 under engineer Sebastian Thrun, who had previously worked on the technology with Stanford University faculty. Google co- founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin pushed Mr. Thrun to perfect the technology, which allows cars to drive themselves with the aid of lasers, cameras, and other gear.  In most states, autonomous vehicles are neither prohibited nor permitted—a key reason why Google's fleet of autonomous cars secretly drove more than 100,000 miles on the road before the company announced the initiative in fall 2010.  Last month, Mr. Brin said he expects self-driving cars to be publicly available within five years. Autonomous vehicles are safer than human drivers, and the technology could prevent accidents, help disabled people get around and reduce traffic congestion and gas consumption,  Auto makers such as General Motors Co., GM +0.04%BMW AG BMW.XE -0.04%and Toyota Motor Corp. 7203.TO -1.87%are competing with Google to develop such technology.  Google's Mr. Brin has said the company is looking to partner with automakers who could implement Google's technology and that it wasn't interested in manufacturing its own cars.  Google's effort to make the cars legal began in 2010 at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.  Mr. Levandowski later agreed Google should give Nevada a try, partly because the state's aging population might benefit from self-driving cars and it was close to California, said a Google spokesman.  In January 2011, Mr. Goldwater approached Ms. Dondero Loop and the Nevada assembly transportation committee about proposing a bill to direct the state's department of motor vehicles to draft regulations around the self-driving vehicles.  But Google helped push the bill through after spending about $140,000 over the past year to lobby legislators and California agencies, according to public records. Google’s Self-guided Car could Drive the next wave of Unemployment  Jerry Brown, the governor of California, signed into law a bill that will allow driverless cars on to his state's roads from 2015.  Governor Brown signed the bill at Google's HQ in Mountain View.  For several years, Toyota Prius hybrids that have been specially adapted by the company's engineers have been driving the roads of California. To date, they have logged 300,000 miles with only one accident – caused by a human-controlled car that ran into one of them. And they have now logged 50,000 miles without a human having to take the wheel.  At the ceremony in Mountain View, Google's co-founder, Sergey Brin, announced the company's intention to bring autonomous vehicles to the market in five years.  That seems plausible to me: 40,000 people are killed every year in road accidents in the US and many, if not most, of those are caused by human error.  Economists in the US are increasingly puzzled by the fact that even after its recession officially ended, the rate of job-creation is much lower than expected and the mean length of time for which people are unemployed has rocketed to 40 weeks, twice as long as that observed during any previous postwar recovery  Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, in their book Race Against the Machine. Crudely stated, their view is that advances in computing of the kind embodied by the Google self- driving car represent the next wave of job-eliminating technology.  Ray Kurzweil's idea of the technological "singularity" – the point at which artificial intelligence (AI) surpasses human intelligence  Moore's law, which says that computing power doubles every 18 months,  Sorn (Statutory Off Road Notification) Why I never trust GPS Maps Completely  The sudden surge of consumer GPS gadgets around 2001 and 2002 was caused by the U.S. government allowing civilian hardware to access the 1-meter GPS accuracy that had previously only been available to military devices.  But GPS only tells you where you are in latitude and longitude — building the visual maps that need to be placed under those pinpoints is a challenging multi-billion-dollar endeavour  Smartphones were thought to be the holy grail, because they could download fresher (and therefore — we naively assumed — more accurate) maps on the fly. Never again would a random construction project take you by surprise. So we cheered the arrival in 2009 of bona-fide turn-by-turn smartphone navigation, particularly the free version that Google offered on the Motorola Droid and subsequent phones running Android 2.0.  For iPhone users, GPS navigation was a double-edged sword, because without Apple providing a free homegrown navigator, people who wanted live turn-by-turn instructions had to pay up in the App Store, sometimes up to $100.  Cue all hell breaking loose when Apple swapped it out with their own approach, powered by the Tele Atlas map database instead of Google's. Could Your Car get a Computer Virus?  That's because in 2010, more than 100 customers of a dealership called Texas Auto Center found their efforts to start their cars fruitless, and even worse, their car alarms blared ceaselessly, stopped only when the batteries were removed from the vehicles  Omar Ramos-Lopez, who had been laid off by the Texas Auto Center, decided to exact some revenge on his former Austin, Texas employer by hacking into the company's Web- based vehicle immobilization system, typically used to disable the cars of folks who had stopped making mandatory payments  , in 2010 researchers from the University of Washington and the University of California at San Diego proved that they could hack into the computer systems that control vehicles and remotely have power over everything from the brakes to the heat to the radio  Researchers from Rutgers University and the University of South Carolina also demonstrated the possibility of hijacking the wireless signals sent out by a car's tire pressure monitoring system, enabling hackers to monitor the movements of a vehicle.  Cars have much simpler processors than a home computer and are designed to do simple, dedicated tasks," says Cameron Camp, a researcher at ESET, a technology security company  Automotive computers have been more or less immune to hackers and viruses because, unlike PCs, there have been few ways for outside computers or people to connect with vehicle computers.  According to Aryeh Goretsky, another researcher at ESET, it's also expensive to develop viruses for many cars because there's a lack of hardware, software and protocol standardization. "That would make it difficult for an attacker to target more than a few makes and models of an automobile at a time," he says.  Cas Mollien of Bazic Blue says that the advent of communication and entertainment devices is not yet a big problem. "As long as the multimedia interface is separated from the car's control computers, the worst that could happen is a malfunction of the multimedia equipment Driving requires Your Full Attention  It will cost a driver $155 for texting, typing, emailing, dialing, or chatting using a hand- held device.  Drivers may use hands-free devices such as cell phones with an earpiece, headset or Bluetooth device using voice dialing, global positioning system units monitored on the dashboard, and portable media players plugged into the cars sound system.  The law does not apply to drivers in vehicles pulled off the roadway or lawfully parked, 911 calls, and display screens showing information about the cars status.  Ontario's ban on hand-held devices while driving took effect on October 26, 2009  'Hands-free' use means that apart from activating or deactivating the device, it is not held during use and the driver is not physically interacting with or manipulating it  drivers who use cell phones are four times more likely to be in a collision than a driver who is focused on the road. Cell phones and other wireless communication and entertainment devices are a significant visual and cognitive distraction for drivers, with average "eyes off the road" times that increase the risk of collision considerably. At highway speed, a driver sending a simple text message travels the length of a football field without looking at the road. CAA Distracted Driving Drivers who are engaged in the following distractions are more likely to be in a crash or near crash event compared with non-distracted drivers.  Text messaging (or texting) on a cell phone — 23 times more likely  Talking on a cell phone — 4 to 5 times more likely  Reading — 3 times more likely  Applying makeup — 3 times more likely  Reaching for a moving object — 9 times more likely  Dialing on a hand-held device — 3 times more likely  Talking or listening on a hand-held device — 1.3 times more likely CAA Distracted Driving Simulator  The potential hazards you may encounter while driving vary greatly depending on your driving environment. In an urban environment, you may encounter heavy traffic, various traffic control signs and signals, pedestrians and cyclists, and a distracting visual environment. In residential areas, you need to watch out for children playing in the area or going to school, parked cars, and pets. On the highway, the high speed of travel can make even split-second distractions deadly.  Road conditions can affect both your ability to spot hazards and your ability to control your vehicle. Weather conditions such as rain and snow can make it difficult to see. Driving at night or into the glare of the sun can also decrease your ability to see the environment around you. A road surface that is in poor condition, or covered in snow or ice, will increase your stopping distance as well as make the driving situation more difficult.  The faster you're travelling, the greater distance you cover during each moment you‘re distracted or your eyes are off the road. Distraction Average Duration Answering a Phone Call 10.6 seconds Replying to Text Message 33.6 seconds Grooming 14.4 seconds Reading Directions 7.0 seconds Drinking Coffee 6.3 seconds Adjusting Radio 1.3 seconds Adjusting Climate Control 2.7 seconds Adjusting GPS 26.7 seconds  GO TO WEBSITE FOR DETAIL Read pages 18-26 article number 8! AAA Foundation Study Says Teen Girls top Boys in distracted driving habits  Teen girl drivers are more likely to be distracted by electronic devices and their male counterparts, a new study reports.  teen girls are twice as likely as teen boys to use cell phones and other electronic devices while driving.  "Cell phones, texting, personal grooming, and reaching for things in the car were among the most common distracting activities found when cameras were put in new teen drivers' cars,"  Data for the 50-page report, titled "Distracted Driving Among Newly Licensed Teen Drivers," came from an analysis of video clips from 50 North Carolina families with novice teen drivers.  The first study looked at how parents supervise their teens when they first begin learning to drive, and the second examined how teen behaviors and driving conditions shift during the transition to unsupervised driving.  For the current study, 7,858 clips from the first six months of unsupervised driving were reanalyzed to investigate distraction specifically,  The study results show that girls were nearly twice as likely as males to use an electronic device while driving, and overall were nearly 10 percent more likely to be distracted while reaching for an object in the vehicle (nearly 50 percent more likely than boys) and eating or drinking (nearly 25 percent more likely). But male teen drivers were roughly twice as likely to turn around in their seats while driving, and were also more likely to communicate with people outside of the vehicle, the study reports.  UNC Highway Safety Research Center who conducted the study, conclude, other than electronic device usage, teens engaged in some form of potentially distracted behavior in 15 percent of clips, of which adjusting controls, personal grooming, and eating or drinking were the most common.  Many of the distracting behaviors -- including use of electronic devices -- were more prevalent among the older teens in the study group, suggesting rapid changes in these behaviors as teens get more comfortable behind the wheel, Unit 3 Kodak Plugged In – We had no Idea  In December of 1975, after a year of piecing together a bunch of new technology in a back lab at the Elmgrove Plant in Rochester, we were ready to try it.  A collection of digital circuits that we desperately tried to convince ourselves was a portable camera. It had a lens that we took from a used parts bin from the Super 8 movie camera production line downstairs from our little lab on the second floor in Bldg 4. On the side of our portable contraption, we shoehorned in a portable digital cassette instrumentation recorder. Add to that 16 nickel cadmium batteries, a highly temperamental new type of CCD imaging area array, an a/d converter implementation stolen from a digital voltmeter application, several dozen digital and analog circuits all wired together on approximately half a dozen circuit boards, and you have our interpretation of what a portable all electronic still camera  a camera that would capture images using a CCD imager and digitize the captured scene and store the digital info on a standard cassette. It took 23 seconds to record the digitized image to the cassette. The image was viewed by removing the cassette from the camera and placing it in a custom playback device. This playback device incorporated a cassette reader and a specially built frame store. This custom frame store received the data from the tape, interpolated the 100 captured lines to 400 lines, and generated a standard NTSC video signal, which was then sent to a television set.  That‘s what we demonstrated to many internal Kodak audiences throughout 1976. In what has got to be one of the most insensitive choices of demonstration titles ever, we called it ―Film-less Photography‖.  (15 to 20 years
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