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EDRD 3120 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Guide: Consciousness Raising, Transformative Learning, Pedagogy Of The Oppressed

32 Pages
137 Views
Fall 2016

Department
Environmental Design and Rural Development
Course Code
EDRD 3120
Professor
Susan Brown
Study Guide
Final

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UofG
EDRD 3120
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
EDRD 3120
PEDAGOGY OF THE OPPRESSED
INTRODUCTION, PREFACE AND FORWARD
The novel is based on the author’s first hand life experience in terms of suffering
from hunger due to his middle class family losing its economic base. He strives to
not only enhance knowledge in education but enhance the overall knowledge
regarding the struggle for national development.
He states that if students are not able to transform their lived experiences into
knowledge and to use the already acquired knowledge as a process to unveil
new knowledge, they will never be able to participate well enough in dialogue
as a process of learning and knowing.
Persons often identify with representations that they are comfortable with or
that can help deepen their understanding of themselves.
There is no such thing as a neutral education.
It either functions as an instrument that is used to facilitate the integration of the
younger generation into the current system and bring conformity to it.
Details on page 34.
Not only so, persons rarely admit to their fear of freedom and tend to camouflage it.
View the details of Sectarianism & Radicalization (focus of the book) page
37.
Sectarianism
- Obstacle to the emancipation of mankind
- Fed by fanaticism, always castrating.
- Blinded by rationality, cannot perceive realities dynamic
- Right wing wants to slow down historical process (they try to domesticate)
- Left wing goes astray when they try to interpret (based on tomorrow)
- They are both reactive
- Individual’s make their own truth
Radicalism
- Criticizes and liberates
- Increased commitment to the position chosen and trying to transform
concrete reality
- Revolution in nature
- Never a subjectivist (only exists in terms of the other objective aspect
- They do not become prison of their own circle, they are liberated.
- Knowing reality better aids transformation
- Persons are not afraid such as their sectarian counterparts.
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EDRD 3120
UNDERSTANDING AND PROMOTING TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING
CHAPTER 1
THE CONTEXT OF TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING
Members continue to struggle when it comes to defining the boundaries and the
scope of this discipline.
Transformative Learning: process by which previously uncritically assimilated
assumptions, beliefs, values and perspectives are questioned and thereby become
more open and validated.
Adult Learning as a Distinctive Process
Adult learning is often considered voluntary and is often described as self-directed.
Directed Learning: people make the instructional design decisions identifying
their needs, setting own goals, choosing how to learn etc. (Similar to autonomy).
Candy described the following facets of self-direction:
- Learner control (persons making decisions about their learning within a
formal context)
- Autonomy (personal trait)
- Self-Management planning one’s educational experiences
- Autodidaxy (engaging in information, independent learning projects)
We cannot assume that adults are automatically self-directed. Adult learning should
be practical or experimental in nature and is based on the assumption that adults
have immediate problems to solve and that they wish to apply to their learning
directly to their workplace or personal life.
That is why they include real-life applications in their programs.
Transfer of Learning: application in the world outside the classroom
Transformation has not taken place until a person has acted on the learning
People may vary on the extent to which they value practical learning and
experiential activities.
Humanism: strongly influenced adult education. It seems to be collaborative and
participatory.
Educators describe themselves as facilitators rather than teachers and seek to
establish a co-learner role with their students with a safe atmosphere.
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UofG EDRD 3120 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE find more resources at oneclass.com EDRD 3120 PEDAGOGY OF THE OPPRESSED INTRODUCTION, PREFACE AND FORWARD The novel is based on the author’s first hand life experience in terms of suffering from hunger due to his middle class family losing its economic base. He strives to not only enhance knowledge in education but enhance the overall knowledge regarding the struggle for national development. He states that if students are not able to transform their lived experiences into knowledge and to use the already acquired knowledge as a process to unveil new knowledge, they will never be able to participate well enough in dialogue as a process of learning and knowing. Persons often identify with representations that they are comfortable with or that can help deepen their understanding of themselves. There is no such thing as a neutral education. It either functions as an instrument that is used to facilitate the integration of the younger generation into the current system and bring conformity to it.  Details on page 34. Not only so, persons rarely admit to their fear of freedom and tend to camouflage it.  View the details of Sectarianism & Radicalization (focus of the book) – page 37. Sectarianism - Obstacle to the emancipation of mankind - Fed by fanaticism, always castrating. - Blinded by rationality, cannot perceive realities dynamic - Right wing wants to slow down historical process (they try to domesticate) - Left wing goes astray when they try to interpret (based on tomorrow) - They are both reactive - Individual’s make their own truth Radicalism - Criticizes and liberates - Increased commitment to the position chosen and trying to transform concrete reality - Revolution in nature - Never a subjectivist (only exists in terms of the other objective aspect - They do not become prison of their own circle, they are liberated. - Knowing reality better aids transformation - Persons are not afraid such as their sectarian counterparts. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com EDRD 3120 UNDERSTANDING AND PROMOTING TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING CHAPTER 1 THE CONTEXT OF TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING Members continue to struggle when it comes to defining the boundaries and the scope of this discipline. Transformative Learning: process by which previously uncritically assimilated assumptions, beliefs, values and perspectives are questioned and thereby become more open and validated. Adult Learning as a Distinctive Process Adult learning is often considered voluntary and is often described as self-directed. Directed Learning: people make the instructional design decisions – identifying their needs, setting own goals, choosing how to learn etc. (Similar to autonomy). Candy described the following facets of self-direction: - Learner control (persons making decisions about their learning within a formal context) - Autonomy (personal trait) - Self-Management ▯planning one’s educational experiences▯ - Autodidaxy (engaging in information, independent learning projects) We cannot assume that adults are automatically self-directed. Adult learning should be practical or experimental in nature and is based on the assumption that adults have immediate problems to solve and that they wish to apply to their learning directly to their workplace or personal life. That is why they include real-life applications in their programs. Transfer of Learning: application in the world outside the classroom Transformation has not taken place until a person has acted on the learning People may vary on the extent to which they value practical learning and experiential activities. Humanism: strongly influenced adult education. It seems to be collaborative and participatory. Educators describe themselves as facilitators rather than teachers and seek to establish a co-learner role with their students with a safe atmosphere. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Critical Theory: how adults learn to challenge dominant ideology, uncover power, and contest hegemony. Some tend to emphasize the experiences and resources that adults bring to the learning setting. Constructivist: learners share their experiences and resources with each other to create new knowledge. Self-Concept is an important term when it comes to adult learning. Learning Styles - Cognitive: how persons acquire, process, store, and use information. - Learning: preference for a certain condition or way of learning and is generally considered to be value neutral. - Convergers: prefer to arrive quickly at specific, concrete solutions - Assimilators: integrate ideas into models and theories - Divergers: enjoy generating ideas and working with others - Accommodators: learn by experience and engage in trial and error learning. Emotional )ntelligence: person’s ability to manage emotions, recognize others emotions and establish good relationships with others. Transformative Learning in Context Transformative Learning is voluntary as persons have the choice of being critically self-reflective or not. These two are intertwined. Being practical and experiential are a defining characteristics of adult learning in terms of having immediate problems they are trying to solve. Many saw reflection on experience as a necessary part of learning but the process itself may be driven by: self-reflection, exploration and intuition with no other further reference to the world that exists outside the self Adult Learning: collaborative and participatory are key! - The sharing of experiences and values within a comfortable group atmosphere can obviously act as a stimulant for critical questioning. It can also occur without any collaboration. Transformative learning has to do with making meaning out of experiences and questioning assumptions based on prior experience. Our habitual expectations – what we expect to happen based on what has happened in the past are the product of experiences and it is those that are called into question when this learning process occurs. It is only in adulthood that persons develop the reflective judgment necessary to assess their own reasoning about their habitual expectations. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Transformative learning leads to a changed self-perception. When persons review their habits of mind, they are interpreting their sense of self in relation to the world. The self-concept is central to the process that they undergo. Perspectives on Adult Learning Liberal Education: goal is to produce intelligent, informed, cultured and moral citizenry. Progressivism: more emphasis is placed on knowledge that is derived from science and rationality and experience is seen as a source of learning. Behaviorism: knowledge is external to the self. Humanist: learning as personal development through interpersonal relationships Radical: social change through challenges to the current capitalist and democratic system. Feminist Theory Basically two dimensions: one on a continuum while the other is not. (Page 9) Types of Knowledge - Technical: allows us to manipulate and control the environment or to predict observable physical and social events and take the proper action. Using empirical or natural scientific methods, the laws governing can be found through science. - Instrumental: acquisition of technological knowledge. - Practical: based on our need to understand each other through language. In order to survive we must communicate with one another. All societies share and transmit social knowledge. - Communicative: derived from shared interpretation and consensus and then becomes redefined. - Emancipatory: comes from questioning instrumental and communicative can occur in any setting where learning happens. It is gained through a process of critically questioning ourselves and the social system In which we live in. The two are not rejected but are seen as limiting. (Goal of adult learning) Self-Determination: described as the capacity to be aware and critical both of us and of our social/cultural context. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com EDRD 3120 UNDERSTANDING AND PROMOTING TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING CHAPTER 2 THE ORIGINS OF TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING THEORY Throughout life persons make meaning out of their experiences. People have a set of expectations about the world that are based on formative childhood experiences. When they encounters something that does not fit with their expectations of how things should be based on that past experience, the choices are to reject or to question. When persons critically examine their habitual expectations revise them and act on this revised point of view it leads to transformative learning: perspectives that are more inclusive, discriminating and integrative of experience. Development of Transformative Learning Theory The process of personal perspective transformation has 10 phases: - Experiencing a disorienting dilemma - Undergoing a self-examination - Conducting a critical assessment of internalized assumptions and feeling a sense of alienation from traditional social expectations - Relating discontent to the similar experiences of others (The problem is shared) - Exploring options for new ways of acting - Building competence and self-confidence in new roles - Planning a course of action - Acquiring skills and knowledge for a new course of action - Trying out new roles and assessing them - Reintegrating into society with the new perspective Perspective Transformation: structural reorganization in the way a person looks at themselves and their relationships Psycho-Cultural Assumptions: the way in which a person’s past constrains perceptions of the self and relationships with others Mezirow described learning as a process of making assumptions explicit, contextualizing, validating and acting on them. Self-Directed Learner: one who participates freely in dialogue in order to test perspectives against those of others and modify them accordingly. Meaning Perspectives: defined as the structure or web of cultural and psychological assumptions find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Meaning Schemes: rules and expectations that govern our lives Transformative Learning is a cognitive and rational process – it is an adult form of metacognition. There also needs to be affective emotional and social context aspects. Reasoning: process of advancing and assessing reasons, especially those that provide arguments supporting belief’s resulting in decisions to act. Beliefs: justified when they are based on good reasons A frame of reference has two dimensions - Habits of mind: broad dispositions that we use to interpret experience (Expressed as a point of view) - Point of View: cluster of meaning schemes (Habitual and implicit rules to interpret experience) Overview of Transformative Learning Theory Meaning is seen to exist within ourselves not in external forms. What we make of the work is a result of our perceptions and experience.  Description on page 19 Learning occurs when a person encounters an alternate perspective that calls prior habits of mind into question. Discourse: dialogue involving the assessment of beliefs, feelings and values. In discourse they will: - Have accurate and complete information - Be free from coercion and distorting self-perception - Be able to weigh evidence and assess arguments objectively - Be open to alternate experiences - Be able to reflect critically on presuppositions and their consequences - Have equal opportunities to participate - Be able to accept an informed, objective consensus as valid Types of Habits of Mind (How to correctly problem solve) 1. Epistemic: related to knowledge and the way we acquire and use knowledge. They are about the way we learn. 2. Sociolinguistic: based on social norms, cultural expectations and the way we use language. 3. Psychological: how we see ourselves, self-concept, needs, inhibition, anxiety, fear and personality traits 4. Moral-Ethical: conscious and morality – we can develop one that is higher than one that is embodied within society. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com 5. Philosophical: transcended world-views and religious doctrines. These are very complex 6. Aesthetic: values, attitudes, tastes, judgments and standards about beauty Unquestioned Habits of Mind Each perspective is made of interwoven facets. Habits of mind are unexamined. They create limitations and form boxes of which we are unconscious and cannot get beyond there. Realistic view: distorted assumptions might be helpful in understanding our stance in relation to the world Constructivist: left for several question It allows for the possibility that habits of mind do not necessarily needs to be abandoned once examined. Reflective Judgments - Beliefs need no justification – what is believed is true - Knowledge is absolutely certain but may not be immediately available - Knowledge is absolutely certain or temporarily uncertain - Knowledge is idiosyncratic - Knowledge is contextual and subjective - Constructed by each person and based on evidence of that argument - Product of rational inquiry Authentic Self: essence that is you, the essential self which may be biologically determined or learned but is resistant to change Autonomous Self: characterized by agency, choice, reflection and rationality. Repressed Self: account the unconscious dimension Socially Constructed Self: develops through interactions with others Storied Self: how persons use narrative and story telling to come to an understanding of the self.  Hard to articulate and question and may cause defense mechanisms due to childhood experiences and past experiences of education  Page 24-25 Types of Reflection Reflection is a key concept in transformative learning. Reflective thinking is a goal of learning. It is still seen as a process of reconsidering experience through reason and find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com interpreting the experiences to form mental structures. Critical reflection is central to TL as well. Two distinctively adult learning capabilities are required: - Development of a capacity to be critically self-reflective - Exercise reflective judgment - They are needed to fully understand the meaning of our experience and rational reasoning Types: - Content: examination of the content or description of a problem - Process: checking on the problem-solving strategies that are being used - Premise: when the problem itself is questioned It is premise reflection that has the potential to lead persons to the transformation of a habit of mind Content and process reflection may lead to the transformation of a specific belief but it is premise reflection that engages in learners in seeing themselves and the world in a different way. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com EDRD 3120 CHAPTER 3 TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING THEORY AS AN INTEGRATED PERSPECTIVE The earliest critics focused on TLT in Mezirow’s failure to address social change and selective interpretations of Habernas’ work. Dirk’s four lens approach 1. Transformative learning’s goal is liberation from oppression and its orientation is social justice 2. Concentration on rational thought and reflection as central to a process of responding to a disorienting dilemma, questioning assumptions, engaging in discourse and acting on a new perspectives. 3. Developmental approach. The process is intuitive, holistic and contextually based, a transitional journey within a social environment. 4. Can be viewed is one in which learning is linked into spirituality.  Learning is known as soul work. E.W. Taylor identified several alternative conceptions: - Psychoanalytic (process of individuation) - Psychodevelopment (learning across the lifespan) - Social-emanticipatory (where the oppressed develop a critical consciousness - Neurobiological (changes in the brain structure during the learning process - Cultural spiritual (relevant and spiritual grounded learning process) - Race centric (puts persons of African descent first) - Planetary View (takes into account the whole system beyond the person) Connected Knowing Traditional learning theory focuses on how an individual person learns and its assumptions may lie in the terms of behaviorism. Evaluation of learning is based on individual performance in education from the first grade through doctoral studies. Western society values individualism. Now there is a great focus on emotional intelligence and persons learn to work together. Some have suggested that women have been ignored in the literature. They proposed that women tend to learn differently through relationships with others, through nurturing and caring and connecting with each other. Although Mezirow presumed human relationships equally but they are actually asymmetrical. The dualistic thinking needs to go towards a more integrative thinking. Belenky described 6 developmental stages of knowing for women: - Silenced - Received knowers - Subjective knowers find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com - Separate knowers - Connected knowers - Constructivist knowers It was the distinction between separate knowing and connected knowing that was of greatest interest. The traditional theory, they suggested places separate knowing in a central role. Unlike separate knowers who follow lines of reasoning and look for flaws in logic to create more defensible knowledge, connected knowers suspend judgment and struggle to understand other’s point of view. They look for strengths rather than weaknesses in another person’s point of view. Carter found that transformation occurred primarily through developmental relationships among the upper-level management among women. They value a love relationship – a deep intimate sharing of experiences and feelings of a sustained period of time. However it needs to be cautioned that the fact that both sexes may learn in different manners may lead to stereotyping. Social Change - Has been a long goal of adult education - Mezirow was not saying that social action is not the responsibility of the adult educators or the product of transformative learning. He was saying that educators go about making a difference in the world by helping learners learn how to make a difference in the world. - In social action, disequilibrium is present in all relationships. Transformation includes not only structural change in the persons way of seeing themselves and the world but also structural change in the social world that provides the context of the person’s life. There are four subscales that reflect the social change aspects of transformative learning: empowerment, social action, unveiling oppression and ideology critique. Torres says that transformative learning is an instrument for social justice. There is an interesting paradox. Democracy implies participation based on the assumption of equality among people. Yet persons need to be educated in democratic participation. Groups and Organization It is hard to distinguish between transformative learning with social change as a goal and group learning. Deschant claimed that a group as a system can create knowledge for itself. The popular work on learning organization follows this model. Action Learning: learning in small groups and teams by working no a real project or problem in the organization. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Collaborative Inquiry: process consisting of reapted episodes of reflecting and action through which a group of peers strives to answer a question and the importance to them. There is an emphasis on co-inquiry, democratic and holistic understanding. Fenwick states that those who write about learning organizations are likely closely aligned with the organizations goals but the visions and goals of the ordinary person working within the organization may be very different. Can groups learn and transform? -> yes since transformative learning becomes an expansion of consciousness that is collective as well as individual. Three types of transformative learning groups: - groups for personal growth and self awareness - groups for relational empathy across differences - groups for critical systemic consciousness Ecological View - The transformative learning process and the one that is personal is integrated. We are part of the whole. - We need everyone’s wisdom: women, indigenous persons and spirituality. Thus, a holistic view. - We need to learn to love life in all forms first then extending it to other horizons. Extrarational Approach - They described it as a process of discernment in which symbols, images, and archetypes play a role in personal illumination. Thus, working in a small group, the group itself affects the way the individual members create images, identify personal dilemma and relate to developmental phases to personal stages. - Transformative learning involves imaginative and emotional ways of knowing. - Mythos reflects a facet of knowing that we can see in symbols, images, stories and myths. - Framing learning as a problem of self-reflection can lead us to neglect the emotional, spiritual and imaginative aspects making it more limited and not holistic. - We experience soul through artistic experiences - In nurturing the soul, we pay attention to every day occurrences even the small ones. - Jung described individuation as: process by which persons differentiate themselves from the general collective of society. This occurs whether we are conscious of this or not. - Individuality and group identity are not compatible. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com - If we use a holistic theory of transformative learning then both of the paths mentioned above can be valid. Toward an Integrated Theory - Emphasized that we need to move away from dualisms and need to be conscious of the critique by Newman that transformative learning theory may not exist as an identifiable phenomenon but rather as just another way of talking about good teaching. - A good theory takes into account a variety of circumstances and possibilities while remaining true to the meaning of the theory - Whether they engage in cognitive or extraratial depends on their personality, same as whether it is an individual or social aspect. * Future Research on page 42-43. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com EDRD 3120 CHAPTER 4 TRANSFORMATION Ways of Knowing: the Critical Self-Reflection Perspective - The model of the transformative learning process is based on phases that have not been intended to imply that the phases are linear or independent. A person may cycle through some phases more than once and skip some steps and are more likely to reintegrate at the end Enpowerment - When you do not feel this, you cannot act on your own behalf. - Learner empowerment is both a goal and condition for transformative learning. Disorienting Event - Even when the educator deliberately sets up circumstances to promote critical reflection, not everyone or perhaps anyone will be affected by it. - It can be experienced outside the classroom as well. And events that stimulate this type of reflection can take on many forms. - Encountering perspectives that challenge previously accepted knowledge can come from many sources. - Social norms and expectations are often so deeply entrenched tat are not even aware of their presence. - Larger societal and political events, life crises may also be a factor.  Becoming aware of our habits of mind is a difficult process. Discourse, Dialogue and Support - From other persons seems to play a major role in transformative learning. - Others can assist us in not only articulating our own perspectives and see alternatives - Dialogue and support help promote a good sense of self. - General support and specific feedback. - Educators need to be aware of learner’s needs for supporting and challenging feedback during this learning. Ways of Knowing: the Extrarational Perspective - Imaginal method (soul work) - Components include: process of association (recognition how the image reflects similar experiences from the past) amplification (making connections to pop culture, methodology and literature) animation (engaging in dialogue with the image) - The process of transformative learning can feel quite threatening when it brings into question our identity that we have created through our interactions with the world. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com - Artistic learning projects The Temporal Dimension: Incremental or Epochal - Incremental (gradually over time) - Epochal (sudden and dramatic) - Even when the experience is abrupt, there is still a process of unfolding, critical reflection, discourse and assumptions of what we already know.  Possibilities on page 56  Developmental transformation on page 57-58. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com EDRD 3120 CHAPTER 5 INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES In the constructivist view, persons participate in the construction of reality and it is done through its influences as well. Commonly accepted views are socially constructed and the understanding depends on the social processes. We see the world through the interactions we have had. According to Jung, constructive means building up, an antithesis of the reductive. Psychological Type Theory - Meaningful way of understanding individual differences without oversimplification. - The observer in psychology must see both subjectively and objectively. - Cautioned in regards to stereotyping and stay away from quantification measures for reference. Introversion and Extraversion -
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