EDRD3500 Final: Entire Course Summaries

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Environmental Design and Rural Development
EDRD 3500
Marianne Staempfli

Article 1 a Hierarchical model of leisure constraints Deliberate Programming with Logic Models From Theory to Outcomes Crawford Jackson Godbey Positive outcomes for youth as a result of participation in recreation and leisureenhance skills increase friendships learn to get along with each other and decrease negative behaviour Presenting this to the government a school district or a foundation would require tools to construct a sound argument for the programToday recreation is not viewed as an arena for dealing with social issues Over time recreation and park professionals strayed from philosophy of providing services to meet the needs of youth and many focused on the fun as the main outcomes oThus recreation used to be viewed as fun and games Todaymost successful programmers and managers design programs to produce outcomes to help them position recreation as a necessary service for accomplishing oService goalsDecreased crime increased safety for children who otherwise might be on the street or return to empty homes during the nonschool hoursoEducation goals better test scores graduation from high school oBehavioural goalsdecreased destructive behaviours including drug use and involvementin early and unprotected sex It is necessary for recreation service providers to find ways to explain in terms that resonate with stakeholders the business that we are in Evidence of success must be provided so that recreation services can be considered beneficial to dealing with youth issues just as are the police schools and the juvenile justice system oImportant for those providing financial support for the programs looking at their funding as social investments oFunders are willing to support programs that provide good investment and thus are increasingly interested in information that demonstrates that programs do indeed achieve their intended outcomes oThere is scientific evidence of the effectiveness of programs to produce valued outcomes However for recreation workers to offer valued programs and to effectively engage in collaborative efforts with other service providers they need to learn to explainoa What they are trying to accomplish ob How objectives will be achieved andoc What evidence exists that the program outcomes have been accomplished The rest of chapter will explore tools for accomplishing these goals The Role of Theory in Program Development programmers must be able to demonstrate that their programs are designed to meet their intended outcomes When programmers take the steps necessary to demonstrate that their programs are relevant and effective and they provide theoretical explanations and evaluations of how their programs achieved the targeted goals a program is considered evidence based oBest way to develop evidence or outcome based programs and to evaluate effectiveness is to base programs on theory It can explain and link what is done in the program with specific outcomesTheory based programming oUses established social science theories and empirical evidence as the basis for program decisions and claims about program outcomesoTheories are used because they provide explanations or forecasts about how selected program activities and experiences will lead to particular participant outcomes Particular ways of structuring and carrying out programs may even be so common that they are generally accepted as best practices oHowever even with acknowledged best practicesdifficult to describe expected outcomes explain processes by which outcomes were expected to be achieved and determine if outcomes were actually achieved oNed to develop programs and evaluate effectiveness of them based on KNOWN linkages between elements of the program and desired outcome and AVOID fuzzy thinking about what they expect to happen in program oLess likely to make unsubstantiated claims about program outcomes AFTER the program is completed Ideally theories oshould guide the development of programs oexplain what one expects to occur as a result of participationoserve as the basis for gathering evidence on whether program goals and expectations are achieved Theory Based Programming An Example Using Logic Modelsin theory based programmingtheory program components and outcomeslinked oprogramseries of successive steps with theory supporting these links oexample the logic model ex after school recreation program helping youth complete their homework sequence provision of homework assistance related activities and knowledgeable staff lead to participants completing homeworkchildren getting their homework done might NOT be the ultimate desired outcomehomework completion is basically a short term outcomeproximal outcome but it is the first step in achieving other outcomes staff hopes over tong termstudents will improve their academic abilities enough to raise their grades and pass standardized achievement test distal outcome something that happens further out in time as a result of completing homework and raising gradesstaff want students to graduate from high school and be able to support themselves via employment ultimate outcomeevents happen in the time series with a series of casual relationships between each of the events or outcomeswhen constructing theory based modelpeople begin by identifying the ultimate outcome that they are seeking to achieveowhat is the eventual contribution ultimate outcome you want the program to makeothere are number of ways to choose the outcome oworking backwards in this model is important because it is the clearest way to identify what the program is intended to accomplishosometimes providing evidence for the ultimate outcome is not possible but it is included in the model to indicate the potential value of the program good planning is intentional thoughtful and purposeful Theories of Intervention and Explanation two levels of theory used to construct a logic model oprogram theory or theory of intervention how the program components lead to the program outcomes otheory of explanationwhy there are linkages between the distal proximal and ultimate outcomes homework assistance program oprogram theory how what happens in the program produces the desired proximal outcomenecessary to have a time for students to complete their homework program component tutoring or assistance by adults who have ability to motivate students answer questions and provide positive rewards for successful homework completion is also provided by providing the program components of time and assistance students should be able to complete their homework otheories of explanationhelps us to link the program distal and ultimate outcomesin the case of homework assistance program research suggests that children who complete their homework are likely to get higher grades and test scores thus they are more likely to graduate from high school and get better paying jobs
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