exam notes- apiculture.docx

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University of Guelph
Environmental Sciences
ENVS 2210
Ernesto Guzman

For the final, you will have questions that will test your knowledge of physiology of bees. For example: you could be asked, what is fat body? Where are the spiracles located? Below is the best diagram I’ve found for inner parts of a bee: 1. Tongue 2. Proboscis 3. Lower Jaw - Maxillae 4. Mandible 5. Upper lip 6. Lower Lip 7. Upper Jaw Gland 8. Pharynx 9. Upper Throat / Gland 10. Compound Eye 11. Brain 12. Simple Eye 13. Saliva Gland 14. Chest (Wing) Muscle 15. Flight Braces 16. Forewing 17. Hindwing 18. Heart Tube 19. Stigmas 20. Aerial Bag 21. Midgut 22. Heart Flaps 23. Small Intestine 24. Odor Gland 25. Abdomen Gland 26. Excrement Bubble 27. Anus 28. Stinger 29. Stinger Sheath 30. Sting Canal 31. Poison Sack 32. Small Gland 33. Seminal Vesicle 34. Wax Glands 35. Belly Mark (Ganglia) 36. Intestinal Valve 37. Valve Funnel 38. Stomach Entrance 39. Honey Stomachs 40. Heart Loop (Aorta) 41. Esophagus 42. Nerve Fibre 43. Jaw 44. Pollen Brush Leg Anatomy: 1. Coxa - Hip 2. Trochanter 3. Femur 4. Tibia 5. Meta Tarsus 6. Tarsus 7. Tarsus Joint 8. Claws You should know all the parts above, but keep in mind; this is not an exhausted list, (missing things like spermatheca, ovaries etc.) go through the text and find the bolded definitions. You should be able to say which part of the body you are looking at, which organ or body part it is, and what it does. If you remember, lots of your first midterm was based on physiology. You just had midterm 2, so you should still remember most of the material, but make sure you know the concepts that were covered in that, the questions on your second midterm could reappear on the final! Some areas that I think are import
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