List of possible questions for Part A of final exam. These cover Sperber
readings pp. 147- 207, 266-270, 292-297, 314-318, 332-342. The format
will be multiple choice.
- Which countries did Napoleon defeat in decisive battles in 1805-6?
Austria and Prussia
(as well as a joint Austrian and Russian force)
- Which innovations did Napoleon implement to centralize and
stabilize government in France?
The gendarmerie, the state-controlled paramilitary police force, employed
primarily in the countryside
Institution of a new senior government official, the prefect, to head
Educational policy, set out to create a cadre of trained experts for the state
Yearly draft call, one day per year on which all young men of the appropriate
age reported to the seat of cantonal administration for a conscription
- What position did Napoleon take towards the Catholic church?
Napoleon believed that Christianity was necessary to get the common people
to obey the law and keep their hands off the property of the rich
Concordat, a negotiated agreement between the French state and the
Vatican, regularizing the position of the church in in France
the government renounced its anti-clericalism and efforts to promoted
alternative to Catholicism and agreed to pay for the church; the
church, in turn, renounced both its former privileges and its
property, and agreed to support the government unstop
promotion and endorsing counter-revolution
- What position did Napoleon take towards emigré nobles?
Napoleon invited most of them to return to France and 'rally' to his rule
excluding relatives of the late Louis XVI and claimants to the throne
when they returned they found their former privileges gone, and much of
their property seized and sold
- What measures which Napoleon took show that he was a product
of the Revolution?
The Napoleonic Codes of civil, commercial and criminal law, demonstrate
Napoleon's endorsement of the revolution's basic innovations
Napoleon may have given himself an imperial title, but the decree in which
he did so proclaimed that the government of the French republic
was being confided to an emperor - thus declaring his realm a
result of the revolution
Napoleonic nobility enjoyed imposing-sounding titles, but held no privileges
enjoyed by feudal or seigneurial rights
Access to nobility was not by birth, but by imperial appointment, and were careers open to talents as the revolutionaries of 1789 wanted
Citizenship rights were not tied to faith, as Protestants and Jews enjoyed
equality under the law
- How did Napoleon reorganize Italian territories by 1810?
The varied duchies, monarchies and independent city states of Italy had
been reduced to three realms, The Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of
Italy, Papal States, all under direct or indirect French rule
- What were Napoleon’s territorial arrangements for Germany by
Napoleon created two new German states, The Kingdom of Westphalia and
the Grand Duchy of Berg, these were 'model states'
'model states' and Napoleon's other German allies were grouped together
into a 'Confederation of the Rhine'
The Westernmost part of the Empire had been incorporated into France
- Did Napoleon include Austria and Prussia in his reorganization of
Austria and Prussia remained outside the system of French hegemony
- What did Napoleon do when the Spanish king Charles IV and his
son Ferdinand appealed to
him to settle their dispute?
Napoleon disposed the Spanish Bourbon royal family and declared his
brother Joseph King of Spain
Napoleon revealed his frustration with his incompetent allies, whose
inconsistent government was not helping with the embark
- What was the reaction of the Spanish population to Napoleon’s
Rebellions broke out across the entire country, at first spontaneous, but soon
acquiring the leadership of clergy, nobles, and government official
created a national junta, that was at war with the monarchy, the war would
last until 1813
- What measures did Prussia’s reforms of 1808-10 include?
reformers sought to mobilize the population politically
introduced an elected government to Prussia's municipalities, to end old
regime guild rule ad domination of civic life by absolutist bureaucrats
abolished serfdom in Prussia, Hardenberg then developed a policy by which
the former serfs would cede to the lords some of their land to redeem
their feudal obligations
declared guilds to be non-compulsory
Knight's estates could be purchased by commoners
new uniform system of state-controlled secondary education, and reforming