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EURO 3300 Quiz: Test #2

European Studies
Course Code
EURO 3300
Roberta Cauchi- Santoro
Study Guide

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Test #2
Multiple Choice Component:
Chapter 28: Europe Divided, 1945-1968:
The Iron-Curtain, 1945-1958:
The end of World War II brought to Europe a tense and precarious stalemate among the
winning Allies
There was no comprehensive peace treaty; the United States and Great Britain were at odds
with the Soviet Union over the future of the liberated territories and their own role in the
process initially, each victor had its own methods for dealing with Nazi war crime
The issue of what to do with the people displaced by the war also posed significant problems
But everything came under the shadow of a growing rift between the United States and the
Soviet Union the rift became a vision, with the United States assuming the role of protector
of western European democracy and capitalism; the Soviet Union became the protector of
oppressed peoples everywhere and the counterforce, through the spread of communism,
against western imperialism
The United Nations added another dimension to the polarized international system
Occupation and De-Nazification:
At the end of World War II, millions of Europeans were homeless and impoverished; entire
cities and economies lay in ruin; the political leadership of many countries had either perished
or been thoroughly compromised by collaboration with the Nazis
To ensure a stable transition to postwar peace, the United States, Britain, France, and the
Soviet Union occupied and divided the territories formerly controlled by the Third Reich and
its allies
Germany, Austria, and the city of Berlin were divided into 4 occupation zones, while other
areas of Europe fell under the control of the liberating ally
The Percentages Agreement:
A 1944 percentages agreement between Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin assigned
Romania and Bulgaria to the Soviet sphere of influence, Czechoslovakia and Greece to the
west (Britain, France, and the United States), with Yugoslavia and Hungary in a 50-50
Percentages agreement secret agreement reached by Churchill and Stalin in 1944
regarding the division of eastern Europe
At Yalta (1945), Poland was placed in the hands of the Soviets, while Czechoslovakia’s fate
remained open
Nuremberg Trials postwar trials of Nazi leaders and collaborators, held in Nuremberg,
Germany, in 1945-1946
De-Nazifization destruction of Nazism and its influence
These international tribunals brought charges of “crimes against humanity,” as a new legal
concept rooted in Enlightenment notions of human rights, to sit in judgment on Nazi racism
and the Final Solution
But many high-ranking Nazi officials involved in the death camps and most rank-and-file party
members escaped trial many of them now cast themselves as victims or innocent
Hermann Goring (1893-1946) Nazi leader, founder of the Gestapo and head of the
Luftwaffe, who was convicted at the Nuremberg Trials
o During his trial at Nuremberg, he rejected the notion of collective guilt, “It is the
leaders of the country who determine the policy and it is always a simple matter to
drag the people along, whether it is a democracy of a fascist dictatorship”
Using the Nuremberg model, in eastern Europe, as the Soviet sphere was increasingly
called, the Soviets orchestrated trials against many military and political leaders who had
worked with the Nazis or, more recently, opposed the Soviets

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Test #2
Invariably, those tried were found guilty and executed or sent to prison in eastern Europe,
the de-Nazification trials became both a form of intimidation and an attempt to legitimize the
communities-the Communist Party being the only political party that appeared untainted by
wartime collaboration with the Nazis
The de-Nazification trials failed to find all Nazi collaborators and punish them the
prosecutors had neither the ability nor the political will for such a vast task, and many
collaborators went into hiding or committed suicide
But the trials did enable survivors to achieve a degree of closure on the Nazi past and get on
with their lives in addition, in light of the growing competition with the Soviet Union, the
western allies found it politically expedient to complete de-Nazification quickly in order to shift
focus toward economic reconstruction
Displaced Persons:
Entire cities were in rubble, and many Germans and others had fled west as the Soviet
armies advanced at the end of the war, between 11 and 20 million individuals were
displaced persons
Resettling Germans:
At the Postdam Conference in July 1945, the western allies agreed that eastern European
governments in Poland and Czechoslovakia could forcibly remove all Germans from their
countries; in Poland, hundreds of thousands of ethnic Germans were expelled; a similar
policy sent hundreds of thousands of Poles from western Ukraine and Belorussia to Poland;
Czechoslovakia also expelled its Germans there was much debate over who exactly was a
German, as there were many ethnically mixed marriages and individuals whose families had
long lived in the contested areas
o Postdam Conference meeting in July 1945 at which the United States, Britain, and
the Soviet Union decided how to administer postwar Germany
Ironically, the western defenders of democracy were enabling the elimination of populations
promoted by the Nazis
Achieving Ethnic Homogenity:
In the process, children were sometimes separated from parents and wives from husbands
more than 100,000 families ended up living across the East-West divide, unable to keep in
touch with each other for a generation
Among the displaced persons were more than 250,000 Jews, located primarily in the
American zone, where they were placed in camps Jewish leaders from Palestine, such as
David Ben-Gurion, worked with the western allies to decide the fate of these people
o David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973) Zionist leader central to establishing the state of
Israel and its first prime minister
More than 130,000 of them settled in British-controlled Palestine, which became Israel in
1948 those who stayed in Europe were subjected to anti-Semitic discrimination and even
postwar pogroms, which generated additional emigrations to Israel
Beginnings of the Cold War:
The wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union against a common
enemy dissolved into an adversarial relation, as the victors could not agree on postwar goals
for Germany and the rest of Europe
Both nations emerged form the war as superpowers, with great international prestige, and
each embarked on a struggle for political, economic, and moral-cultural world supremacy
Constructing the East-West Ideological Divide:
Europe became the playing field in a struggle between the opposing options of the Americans
and the Soviets: liberal democracy vs. communism, private property vs. state ownership,
capitalism and free-market economies vs. state-controlled ones, freedom and material
comfort vs. equality and social justice

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Test #2
New identities and allegiances were created in connection with the two superpowers, and
new enmities developed among old neighbours the division of Europe into East and West
came about as a result of the superpower confrontation
Soviet Wartime Losses and Strategic Claims:
In the contest over world domination, the two superpowers gave different explanations and
used different methods the Soviet Union had lost more people and resources than any
other war combatant and wanted to recoup the economic resources spent fighting the war
In fact, since Germany had experienced 80% of its casualties at the hands of the Soviets,
Stalin was not exaggerating when he claimed that Europe owed the Nazi defeat to his
To rebuild the Soviet economy, he wanted Soviet troops in the occupied zone to oversee the
production and subsequent transfer of goods to the Soviet Union the Soviets also acted out
of fear; having been attacked by Germany twice in the 20th century, they wanted a buffer
zone in eastern Europe where friendly political regimes and military resources would protect
Soviet security
The United States as a Defender of Democracy:
The United States, on the other hand, had an overwhelming interest in bringing back
democracy and capitalist markets to the regions it had liberated
The United States, on the other hand, had an overwhelming interest in bringing back
democracy and capitalist markets to the regions it had liberated
The means by which the Soviets pursued their goals in eastern Europe were in keeping with
Stalin’s personality he fundamentally distrusted those not under his control; he sent some
of the toughest military leaders and most unquestioning loyalists from the communist parties
in eastern Europe to oversee postwar regimes
Stalin had a formidable opponent in U.S. President Harry Truman, as vice president, had
never trusted the Soviet Union
United Nations (UN) international organization founded in 1945 to facilitate collaboration
among nations; replaced the League of Nations
The Truman Doctrine:
In Europe, Truman was committed to prosperity and democracy through positive, through
anti-Soviet, incentives
Truman Doctrine policy statement issued by U.S. President Harry S Truman in 1946
announcing the U.S. commitment to fight the spread of communism everywhere in the world
o Applied specifically to Turkey and Greece, where communist partisans in a civil war
were receiving help from Yugoslavia and the Soviets
Greece was considered key to the political stability in the Mediterranean and American
overseas markets with substantial American support, the military establishment defeated its
communists and imposed its own authoritarian rule
Marshall Plan economic recovery plan established by the United States in 1947 that
offered grants and low-interest loans to non-communist European states
o Allocated more than $13 billion in grants and loans to rebuild Europe’s economies
this money helped rebuild roads, industries, and housing
The Marshall Plan also served to further separate western from eastern Europe, where
countries occupied by Soviet troops were never in a position to accept U.S. aid
Stalemate over Berlin:
In February 1948 the Soviets set up a blockade to isolate the western zones of Berlin from
access by Western powers
To avert military conflict, the United States sent in supplies by means of the Berlin aircraft,
flying in up to 13,000 tons per day
By May 1949, the Soviets had backed down, and Germany became divided into the Federal
Republic of Germany, known as West Germany, and the German Democratic Republic,
known as East Germany
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