Human Development Midterm 1 1
Total Fertility Rate (TFR): number of births per woman.
Variations Within Countries
Majority culture: within a country, the cultural group that sets most of the
norms and standards and holds most of the positions of political, economic,
intellectual, and media power.
Contexts: settings and circumstances that contribute to variations in
pathways of human development, including SES, gender, and ethnicity, as
well as family, school, community, media, and culture
Socioeconomic status (SES): persons social class, including educational
level, income level, and occupational status
Ethnicity: group identity that may include components such as cultural
origin, cultural traditions, race, religion, and language.
Human Origins and the Birth of Culture
Ontogenetic: Characteristic pattern of individual development in a species
Phylogenetic: Pertaining to the development of a species
Our Evolutionary Beginnings
Charles Darwin—Natural Selection—evolutionary process in which the
offspring best adapted to their environment survive to produce offspring
Through natural selection, species change little by little with each generation,
and over a long period of time they can develop into new species
Hominid: evolutionary line that le to modern humans
The most important difference between early hominids and other primates
was the development of bipedal locomotion, or walking on 2 legs.
Hunter gatherer: social and economic system in which economic life is
based on hunting (mostly by males) and gathering edible plants (mostly by
Homosapiens: species of the modern humans.
The Origin of Cultures and Civilizations
Upper Paleolithic Period: Period of human history from 40,000 to 10,000
years ago, when distinct human cultures first developed. This is when:
o Humans began to bury their dead
o Cultural differences developed between human groups,
o Trade took place between human groups
o There was a rapid acceleration in the development of tools.
o First boats were invented.
Neolithic Period: era of human history from 10,000 to 5,000 years ago,
when animals and plants were first domesticated.
o The key to this was climate change. Human Development Midterm 1 2
o The Upper Paleolithic was the time of the last Ice Age, when average
global temperatures were about 10 degrees Celsius below todays
o As the climate began warmer, new plants evolved.
Civilization: form of human social life, beginning about 5000 years ago,
includes cities, writing, occupational specialization, and states.
State: Centralized political system that is an essential feature of civilization.
o They had laws and sewer systems, and their social classes includes
priests, soldiers, craftsmen, government workers and slaves.
o They produced vast range of goods including jewellery, sculpture,
sailboats, wheeled wagons, and swords.
Shaman: religious leader who believed to have special powers and special
knowledge of the spirit world.
Human Evolution and Human Development Today.
Evolutionary Psychology: branch of psychology that examines how
patterns of human functioning and behaviour have resulted from adaptations
to evolutionary conditions.
Ancient Conceptions of Development
Conceptions of Human Development in 3 Traditions
The apprentice stage comprises childhood and adolescence. This is the
stage in which a boy is dependent on his parents, as he grows up and learns
the skills necessary for adult life.
In the householder stage, the young man has married and is in charge of his
own household. This is a time of many responsibilities, ranging from
providing for a wife and family to taking care of elderly parents to engaging
in productive work.
The third stage, forest dweller, begins when a man’s first grandson is born.
The religious ideal in this stage is for a man to withdraw from the world and
literally live in the forest, devoting himself to prayer and religious study, and
cultivating patience and compassion.
The final stage of life is that of renunciant. The renunciant goes even further
than the forest dweller in rejecting worldly attachments. The purpose of life
in this stage is simply to prepare for the end of this life and entry into the
Another conception of life stages was proposed by Solon (PAGE 18)
One important difference among the 3 ancient conceptions of human
development is that they have very different ways of dividing up the life
span, from just 4 stages in the Dharmashastra to 14 in the Talmud. Human Development Midterm 1 3
Watson: anything can be learned
Pavlov: classical conditioning
Behaviors can be conditions by pairing stimulus with response
-B. F. Skinner: operant conditioning
Consequences determine future behaviour
Punishment – decrease future behaviour
Scientific Psychosexual Theory
o Psychosexual theory: Freud’s theory proposing that sexual desire is
the driving force behind human development.
o Superego: angel (good)
o ID: pleasure principle (bad)
o Ego: conscious self
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
Age Period Psychosexual stage Main Features
Infancy Oral Sexual sensations centered
on the mouth; Pleasure
derived from sucking,
Toddlerhood Anal Sexual sensations centered
on the anus; high interest in
feces; pleasure derived from
Early childhood Phallic Sexual sensations move to
genitals; sexual desire for
other sex parent and fear of
same sex parent
Middle childhood Latency Sexual desires repressed;
focus on developing social
and cognitive skills
Adolescence Genital Re-emergence of sexual
desire, now directed outside
the family Human Development Midterm 1 4
Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
Psychosocial Theory: Erikson’s theory that human development is driven
by the need to become integrated into the social and cultural environment.
Age Period Psychosocial Stage Main development
Infancy Trust v. mistrust Establish bond with trusted
Toddlerhood Autonomy vs. shame and Develop a healthy sense of
doubt self as distinct from others
Early childhood Initiative vs. guilt Initiate activities in a
Middle childhood Industry vs. inferiority Begin to learn knowledge
and skills of culture
Adolescence Identity vs. identity Develop a secure and
confusion coherent identity
Early adulthood Intimacy vs. isolation Establish a committed, long
term love relationship
Middle adulthood Generativity vs. stagnation Care for others and
contribute to well being of
Late adulthood Ego integrity vs. despair Evaluate lifetime, accept it as
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory
Ecological theory: Bronfenbrenner’s theory that human development is
shaped by five interrelated systems in the social environment.
According to Bronfenbrenner’s theory, there are 5 key levels or systems that
play a part in human development:
1. The microsystem: contains the structures with which the child has
direct contact. The microsystem encompasses the relationships and
interactions a child has with her immediate surroundings. Structures
in the microsystem include family, school, neighborhood, or
childcare environments. At this level, relationships have impact in
two directions - both away from the child and toward the child.
2. The mesosystem – this layer provides the connection between the
structures of the child’s microsystem. Examples: the connection
between the child’s teacher and his parents, between his church and
his neighborhood, etc.
3. The exosystem – this layer defines the larger social system in which
the child does not function directly. The structures in this layer
impact the child’s development by interacting with some structure in
4. The macrosystem –While not being a specific framework, this layer Human Development Midterm 1 5
is comprised of cultural values, customs, and laws. The effects of
larger principles defined by the macrosystem have a cascading
influence throughout the interactions of all other layers.
5. The chronosystem – this system encompasses the dimension of time
as it relates to a child’s environments. Elements within this system
can be either external, such as the timing of a parent’s death, or
internal, such as the physiological changes that occur with the aging
of a child. As children get older, they may react differently to
environmental changes and may be more able to determine more
how that change will influence them.
A stage model for this book
Emerging adulthood: new life stage in developed countries, lasting from the late
teens through the twenties, in which people are gradually making their way
toward taking on adult responsibilities in love and work.
Scientific Method: process of scientific investigation, involving a series of steps
from identifying a research question through forming a hypothesis, selecting
research methods and designs, collecting and analyzing data, and drawing
The Five Steps of the Scientific Method
Step 1: Identify a Question of Scientific Interest
Step 2: form a hypothesis
Step 3: choose a research method and a research design
o Research method: the approach to investigating the hypothesis
o Research design: plan for when and how to collect data for a study.
Step 4: Collect Data to test the hypothesis
Step 5: Draw conclusions and form new questions and hypotheses.
Ethics in Human Development Research.
The requirements for Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the ethical
guidelines of professional organizations usually include the following
1. Protection from physical and psychological harm
2. Informed consent prior to participation
4. Deception and debriefing.
Methods and Design in Research
Methods Advantages Limitations Human Development Midterm 1 6
Questionnaire Large sampole, quick data Preset response, no depth.
Interview Large sample, quick data Time and effort of coding
Observations Actual behaviour, not self- Observation may effect
Ethnographic Research Entire span of daily life Research must live among
participants; possible bias
Case studies Rich, detailed data Difficult to generalize results
Biological Measurments Precise data Expensive; relation to
behaviour may not be clear
Experiment Control, identification of May not reflect real life
cause and effect
Natural experiment Illuminate gene- Unusual circumstances; rare.
Intervention (experimental research): program intended to change the
attitudes or behaviour of the participants.
Cross-sectional research: Research design that involved collecting data
from people of a variety of ages on a single occasion
o Correlation: statistical relationship between two variables such that
knowing one of the variables makes it possible to predict the other
Longitudinal research: research design in which the same persons are
followed over time and data are collected on two or more occasions
o Cohort effect: in scientific research, an explanation of group
differences among people of different ages based on the fact that they
grew up in different cohorts or historical periods.
Chromosome: sausage-shaped structure in the nucleus of cells, containing
genes, which are paired, except in reproductive cells.
DNA: long strand of cell material that stores and transfers genetic
information in all life forms
Gene: segment of DNA containing coded instructions for the growth and
functioning of the organism.
Genome: entire store of an organism’s hereditary information
Genotype: organism’s unique genetic inheritance
Phenotype: organism’s actual characteristics, derived from its genotype.
Dominant-recessive inheritance: pattern of inheritance in which a pair of
chromosomes contains one dominant and one recessive gene, but only the
dominant gene is expressed in the phenotype.
Allele: on a pair of chromosomes, each of two forms of a gene
Incomplete dominance: form of dominant- recessive inheritance in which
the phenotype is influenced primarily by the dominant gene but also to some
extent by the recessive gene. Human Development Midterm 1 7
o Incomplete dominance in sickle cell inheritance: Two recessive
genes for the sickle cell trait results in sickle cell anemia, but having
one dominant and one recessive gene provides protection against
Polygenic inheritance: expression of phenotypic characteristics due to the
interaction of multiple genes.
Regulator gene: gene that directs the activities of other genes
Gene therapy: method of treating genetic disorders that involves replacing
the affected genes with genes that do not have the disorder.
The sex chromosomes
Sex chromosomes: chromosomes that determine whether an organism is
male (XY) or female (XX).
X-linked inheritance: pattern of inheritance in which a recessive
characteristic is expressed because it is carries on the male’s X chromosome.
Genes and Environment in Human Development
Nature-nurture debate: debate among scholars as to whether human
development is influences mainly by genes(nature) or
Principles of Behaviour Genetics
Behaviour genetics: field in the study of human development that aims to
identify the extent to which gened influence behaviour, primarily by
comparing persons who share different amounts of their genes/
Monozygotic (MZ) twins: twins who have exactly the same genotype; also
called identical twins
Dizygotic(DZ) twins: twins that result when two ova are released by a
female instead of one, and both are fertilized by sperm; also called fraternal
Heritability: statistical estimate of the extent to which genes are responsible
for the differences among persons within a specific population, with values
ranging from 0 to 1.00.
o The higher the heritability, the more the characteristic is believed to
o Heritability estimates have been criticized for giving misleading
impression of the influence of genetics on development.
o Heritability estimates are estimates based on comparison of persons
with different amounts of genetic material in common, not direct
measures of the activity of genes.
Concordance rate: percentage that indicated the degree of similarity in
phenotype among pairs of family members, expressed as a percentage.
Gene-environment Interactions: Epigenesis and Reaction Ranges. Human Development Midterm 1 8
Epigenesis: in development, the continuous bidirectional interactions
between genes and environment.
o According to epigenetic theory, genetic activity responds constantly to
environmental influences. Development is influences by genes but not
purely determined by them.
Reaction range: range of possible developmental aths established by genes;
environment determines where development takes place within that range.
The theory of genotype environmental effects: theory proposing that
genes influence the kind of environment we experience.
The 3 forms of genotype Environment effects
Passive genotype environment effects: the type that results from the
fact that in a biological family, parents provide both genes and environment
to their children.
Evocative genotype environment effects: the type that results occur
when a persons inherited characteristics evoke responses from others in the
Active genotype environment effects: the type that results when people
seek out environments that correspond to their genotypic characteristics.
Genotype Environment effects over time
The three types of genotype environment effects operate throughout
childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, but their relative balance changes
In childhood, passive genotype environment effects are especially
pronounced, and active genotype environment effects are relatively weak.
However, the balance changes as children move through adolescence and
Parental control diminishes, so passive genotype environment effects also
Autonomy increases, so active genotype environment effects also increase.
In adulthood, passive genotype environment effects fade entirely, and
active genotype environment effects move to the forefront.
Evocative genotype environment effects remain relatively stable from
childhood through adulthood.
The theory of genotype environment effects has been the source of
Genes and Individual Development
Gametes: cells, distinctive to each sex, that are involved in reproduction (egg
cells in the ovaries of the female and sperm in the testes of the male)
Sperm and Egg Formation
Ovum: mature egg that develops in ovaries, about every 28 days in human
females. Human Development Midterm 1 9
Meiosis: process by which gametes are generated, through separation and
duplication of chromosome pairs, ending in four new gametes from the
original cell, each with half the number of chromosomes of the original cell.
Mitosis: process of cell replication in which the chromosomes duplicate
themselves and the cell divides into two cells, each with the same number of
chromosomes as the original cell.
Cytoplasm: in an ovum, fluid that provides nutrients for the first 2 weeks of
growth if the ovum is fertilized, until it reaches the uterus and begins
drawing nutrients from the mother.
Crossing over: at the outset of meiosis, the exchange of genetic material
between paired chromosomes.
Follicle: during the female reproductive cycle, the ovum plus other cells that
surround the ovum and provide nutrients.
About 14 days into a womens cycle, the mature follicle cursts
and ovulation takes place as the ovum is released into the
The cytoplasm will provide nutrients for the first 2 weeks of
growth if the ovum is fertilized, until it reaches the uterus and
begins drawing nutrients from the mother.
After the ovum enters the fallopian tube that fertilization can
occur, so fertilization is most likely to take place if intercourse
occurs on the day of ovulation or the 2 previous days.
Once the sperm penetrates the ovum’s membrane, the head of
the sperm detaches from the tail and continues toward the
nucleus of the cell while the tail remains outside
When the sperm head reaches the nucleus of the ovum, the
final phase of meiosis is triggered in the ovum.
Fertilization takes place as the 23 chromosomes from the
ovum pair up with the 23 chromosomes from the sperm.
Zygote: following fertilization, the new cell formed from the union of sperm
Twins can also result when a zygote that has just begun the process of cell
division splits into 2 separate clusters of cells, creating MZ twins
MZ twins are less common than DZ twins.
The Germinal Period (First 2 weeks)
Germinal period: the zygote travels down the fallopian tubes to the uterus
and implants in the uterine wall. As it travels, it begins cell division and
By week 1 following conception there is a ball of about 100 cells known as a
blastocyst which is divided into 2 layers. Human Development Midterm 1 10
o Trophoblast: The outer layers of cells which will go on to form
structures that provide protection and nourishment to the embryo.
o Embryonic disk: the inner layer of cells, which will go on to form the
During the second week after conception, implantation occurs as the
blastocyst becomes firmly embedded into the lining of the uterus.
Amnion, which surrounds the developing organism and fill with fluid,
helping to keep a steady temperature for the organism and protect it against
the friction of the mother’s movements.
In between the uterine wall and the embryonic disk a round structure, the
placenta, begins to develop. The placenta will allow nutrients to pass from
the mother to the developing organism and permit wastes to allow nutrients
to pass from the mother to the developing organism and permit wastes to be
An umbilical cord also begins to develop, connecting the placenta to the
Implantation is the outcome of the germinal period is all goes well.
The Embryonic Period.
Embryonic period: weeks 3-8 of prenatal development. During this period,
the trophoblast differentiated faster than the embryonic disk, developing the
structures to protect and nurture the organism during pregnancy.
Gestation: elapsed time since conception.
First week: the embryonic disk forms 3 layers:
o Ectoderm: the outer layer of cells, which will eventually become the
skin, hair, nails, sensory organs and nervous system. (brain and spinal
o Mesoderm: the middle of the 3 cell layers, which will become the
muscles, cones, reproductive system, and the circulatory system.
o Endoderm: the inner layer of cells, which will become the digestive
system and the respiratory system.
By the end of week 3: part of the ectoderm forms the neural tube, which
will become the spinal cord and brain.
Once formed, the neural tube begins producing neurons (cells of the nervous
system) in immense quantities.
Fourth week: the shape of the head becomes apparent, and the eyes, nose,
mouth and ears begin to form. The heart begins to beat and the ribs, muscle
and digestive tract appear.
Weeks 5-8: Buds that will become arms and legs appear in week 5,
developing webbed fingers and toes that lose their webbing by week 8.
The placenta and the umbilical cord become fully functional.
The digestive system develops, liver begins to producing blood cells.
Heart develops separate chambers. Human Development Midterm 1 11
End of week 8: all the main body parts have formed, and all of the main
organs except the sex organs. The time embryo responds to touch, especiallu
around its mouth, and it can move.
The Fetal Period
Fetal period: Week 9 to birth. The organism continue to develop, and there
is tremendous growth in sheer size.
After 3 months: typical fetus weighs about 3 ounces and is 3 inches long.
Trimester: one of the 3 month periods of prenatal development.
2 trimester: the fetus becomes active and begins to respond to its
Babies born before 22 weeks rarely survive
By the third trimester, brain development has progressed.
Prenatal Care in Traditional Cultures
Midwife: person who assists in pregnant womens prenatal care and the birth
Essentials of Prenatal Care
Have a medical examination to ensure that there are no disease that may affect
prenatal development. If not fully vaccinated, obtain vaccinations for diseases, such
as rubella, that can damage prenatal development
Avoid tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, which may make it more difficult to become
pregnant and are damaging to prenatal development
Teratogen: behaviour, environment or bodily condition that can have damaging
influence on prenatal development.
Sex Chromosome Disorders
A person may have an extra X chromosome (resulting in XXX of XXY), or an
extra Y chromosome (XYY), or may have only an X and no second sex
2 consequences of sex chromosome disorders:
o The person has some type of cognitive deficit, such as mental
retardation, a learning disorder or speech impairments.
o The person has some abnormality in the development of the
reproductive system at puberty, such as underdeveloped testes and
penis in boys or no ovulation in girls.
Down Syndrome Human Development Midterm 1 12
Down syndrome: genetic disorder due to carrying an extra chromosome on
the 21 pair.
Medical experts recommend that pregnant women gain 25-30 pounds and
that they eat a healthy, balanced diet.
Dramatic evidence of this effect has been shown in recent decades in China.
o China had the highest incidence in the world of 2 serious prenatal
disorders, anencephaly, in which parts of the brain are missing or
malformed, and spinabifida, which is an extreme distortion in the
shape of the spinal column.
o The main cause of these diseases was a deficiency in folic acid, a
nutrient found in fruits and vegetables.
Rubella: Over half of infants whose mothers contracted this illness during
the embryonic period have severe problems including blindness, deafness,
and mental retardation.
AIDS: HIV/AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child during prenatal
development through blood, during birth, or through breast milk. It damages
brain development prenatally
Alcohol: Causes most widespread damage. When mothers drink heavily
during pregnancy, their infants are at risk for Fetal alcohol spectrum
disorder (FASD), which includes facial deformities, heart problems,
misshapen limbs, and a variety of cognitive problems such as mental
retardation and attention and memory deficits.
Tobacco: Women who smoke during pregnancy are at higher risk of
miscarriage and premature birth, and smoking is the leading cause of low
birth weight in developed countries.
Other Teratogens: Maternal use of drugs such as heroin, and marijuana
causes physical. Cognitive, and behavioural problems in infants.
o Certain prescription drugs can also cause harm.
Techniques of prenatal monitoring
Ultrasound: machine that uses sound waves to produce images of the fetus
o Used to screen down syndrome
Amniocentesis: prenatal procedure in which a needle is used to withdraw
amniotic fluid containing fetal cells from the placenta, allowing possible
prenatal problems to be detected.
Chorionic Villus sampling (CVS): prenatal technique for diagnosing genetic
problems, involving taking a sample of cells at 5-10 weeks gestation by
inserting a tube into the uterus. Human Development Midterm 1 13
The counsellor takes a comprehensive family history from each prospective
parent, seeking to identify patterns that may indicate problematic recessive
or X-linked genes.
Then each partner provides a blood, skin or urine sample that can be used to
analyze their chromosomes to identify possible problems
Infertility: the inability to attain pregnancy after at least a year of regular
sexual intercourse without contraception.
Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): methods for overcoming
infertility that include artificial insemination, fertility drugs, and IVF.
Artificial insemination: procedure of injecting sperm directly into the
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): form of infertility treatment that involves using
drugs to stimulate the growth of multiple follicles in the ovaries, removing
the follicles and combining them with sperm, then transferring the most
promising zygotes to the uterus.
Animalcule: microscopic human being.
Infertility belt: geographical area in central Africa with infertility rates as high as
30%, apparently due to high rates of malnutrition
Oxytocin: Hormone released by pituitary gland that causes labour to begin.
Stage of the Birth Process
Stage 1: Labour- Longest and most taxing stage. Contractions increase in
duration, frequency, and intensity, causing the cervix to dilate.
Stage 2: Delivery. Usually takes half and hour to an hour, but there is a wide
variation. The mother pushes, and the baby crowns and then exits the birth
canal and enters the world.
Stage 3: Expelling of Placenta and Umbilical Cord. Contractions continue
as the placenta and umbilical cord is expelled. The process usually takes a
- Episiotomy: incision to make the vaginal opening larger during birth
- Failure to progress and breech presentation
o Failure to progress means that the woman has begun the birth
process but it is taking longer than normal. Human Development Midterm 1 14
o Breech presentation- positioning of the fetus so that feet or
buttocks, rather than the head, is positioned to come first out of the
o Cesarean Delivery: (C-section) type of birth in which mother’s
abdomen is cut open and fetus is retrieved directly from uterus.
o For women who have had a C-section, there is a possibility of having a
vaginal birth with the next baby, a procedure known as a VBAC
(vaginal birth after caesarean section).
Cultural and Historical Variations in Birth Beliefs and Practices
Cultural Variations in Birth Beliefs
Beliefs and Rituals Surrounding Birth
In some cultures, birth must take place away from where most people reside,
so that others will not be contaminated by it.
Many cultures have beliefs that the mother remains unclean long after the
birth and must be kept away from others, for her own sake as well as teirs.
In Traditional Vietnam, the mother as to avoid going out for at least 30 days
after birth, in order not to contaminate the rest of the village or endanger
herself or her infant.
Some cultures have rituals for women to purify themselves after birth and
not just non-Western cultures
Meanings of the Placenta.
The placenta is a component of the birth process that has often carried its
own special cultural beliefs.
In some cultures, the methods for disposing the placenta are clear and
simple: burial, burning, or throwing it in a river, or keeping it in a special
place reserved for placentas.
In developed countries the placenta is recognized as having special value as a
course of hormones and nutrients. Hospitals give their placentas to
researchers, or to cosmetic manufacturers who use them to make products
such as hair conditioner.
Cultural Variations in Birth Practices
Midwives are usually the main birth assistants in rural areas of developing
o Midwives tend to be older women who have had children themselves
but are now beyond childbearing age.
o In some cultures, she receives what she believes to be a supernatural
calling in a dream or a vision. In other culture, the position of midwife
is inherited from mother to daughter.
o Some cultures allow women to volunteer as midwives.
o Typically, the woman who is to be a midwife spend several years in
apprenticeship to be a more experienced midwife before taking the Human Development Midterm 1 15
lead in addicting with birth. In other cultures, midwives have been
regarded with contempt or fear.
o In India, Midwives come from the castes that have the lowest status.
Easing the Birth
o Massages make the birth easier and it also allows the midwife to
determine the position of the fetus.
o In many cultures in Asia and South America, the mother is forbidden
from eating “hot” foods. This helps reassure the expectant mother and
enhance her confidence going into birth process.
o When the women begins to go into labour, the midwife is called, and
the expectant mother’s female relative gather around her.
o Epidural: the injection of an aesthetic drug into the spinal fluid to
help the mother manage the pain while also remaining alert.
o After birth, typically the baby is laid on the mother’s abdomen until
the placenta an umbilical cord expelled from her uterus.
o A variety of strategies are used to promote delivering the placenta,
such as massage, medication, and rituals involving opening or
expelling, or attempts to make the woman sneeze or vomit.
Midwives Versus Doctors
o In the west, as in other cultures, most births throughout most of
history were administered by midwives
o This began to change in the 15 century, as a witch-hunting fervor
swept over Europe. In 1486 an influential witch-hunting manual was
published by two monks, declaring that “No one does more harm to
the Catholic faith than midwives.”
o In the early 18 century, Medical schools were established
throughout Europe, and many of the new doctors considered
delivering babies to be the domain of physicians.
o Forceps: pair of tongs used to extract the baby’s head from the womb
o Obstetrics: field of medicine that focuses on prenatal care and birt