Midterm 1 review (ch1-4).docx

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Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course
FRHD 1020
Professor
Susan Chuang
Semester
Winter

Description
Human Development Midterm 1 1 CHAPTER 1  Total Fertility Rate (TFR): number of births per woman. Variations Within Countries  Majority culture: within a country, the cultural group that sets most of the norms and standards and holds most of the positions of political, economic, intellectual, and media power.  Contexts: settings and circumstances that contribute to variations in pathways of human development, including SES, gender, and ethnicity, as well as family, school, community, media, and culture  Socioeconomic status (SES): persons social class, including educational level, income level, and occupational status  Ethnicity: group identity that may include components such as cultural origin, cultural traditions, race, religion, and language. Human Origins and the Birth of Culture  Ontogenetic: Characteristic pattern of individual development in a species  Phylogenetic: Pertaining to the development of a species Our Evolutionary Beginnings  Charles Darwin—Natural Selection—evolutionary process in which the offspring best adapted to their environment survive to produce offspring  Through natural selection, species change little by little with each generation, and over a long period of time they can develop into new species  Hominid: evolutionary line that le to modern humans  The most important difference between early hominids and other primates was the development of bipedal locomotion, or walking on 2 legs.  Hunter gatherer: social and economic system in which economic life is based on hunting (mostly by males) and gathering edible plants (mostly by females)  Homosapiens: species of the modern humans. The Origin of Cultures and Civilizations  Upper Paleolithic Period: Period of human history from 40,000 to 10,000 years ago, when distinct human cultures first developed. This is when: o Humans began to bury their dead o Cultural differences developed between human groups, o Trade took place between human groups o There was a rapid acceleration in the development of tools. o First boats were invented.  Neolithic Period: era of human history from 10,000 to 5,000 years ago, when animals and plants were first domesticated. o The key to this was climate change. Human Development Midterm 1 2 o The Upper Paleolithic was the time of the last Ice Age, when average global temperatures were about 10 degrees Celsius below todays temperatures. o As the climate began warmer, new plants evolved.  Civilization: form of human social life, beginning about 5000 years ago, includes cities, writing, occupational specialization, and states.  State: Centralized political system that is an essential feature of civilization. o They had laws and sewer systems, and their social classes includes priests, soldiers, craftsmen, government workers and slaves. o They produced vast range of goods including jewellery, sculpture, sailboats, wheeled wagons, and swords.  Shaman: religious leader who believed to have special powers and special knowledge of the spirit world. Human Evolution and Human Development Today.  Evolutionary Psychology: branch of psychology that examines how patterns of human functioning and behaviour have resulted from adaptations to evolutionary conditions. Ancient Conceptions of Development Conceptions of Human Development in 3 Traditions  The apprentice stage comprises childhood and adolescence. This is the stage in which a boy is dependent on his parents, as he grows up and learns the skills necessary for adult life.  In the householder stage, the young man has married and is in charge of his own household. This is a time of many responsibilities, ranging from providing for a wife and family to taking care of elderly parents to engaging in productive work.  The third stage, forest dweller, begins when a man’s first grandson is born. The religious ideal in this stage is for a man to withdraw from the world and literally live in the forest, devoting himself to prayer and religious study, and cultivating patience and compassion.  The final stage of life is that of renunciant. The renunciant goes even further than the forest dweller in rejecting worldly attachments. The purpose of life in this stage is simply to prepare for the end of this life and entry into the next.  Another conception of life stages was proposed by Solon (PAGE 18)  One important difference among the 3 ancient conceptions of human development is that they have very different ways of dividing up the life span, from just 4 stages in the Dharmashastra to 14 in the Talmud. Human Development Midterm 1 3 Behaviourism Watson: anything can be learned  Pavlov: classical conditioning Behaviors can be conditions by pairing stimulus with response -B. F. Skinner: operant conditioning   Consequences determine future behaviour   Positive reinforcement   Punishment – decrease future behaviour Scientific Psychosexual Theory  Sigmund Freud: o Psychosexual theory: Freud’s theory proposing that sexual desire is the driving force behind human development. o Superego: angel (good) o ID: pleasure principle (bad) o Ego: conscious self Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Age Period Psychosexual stage Main Features Infancy Oral Sexual sensations centered on the mouth; Pleasure derived from sucking, chewing, biting Toddlerhood Anal Sexual sensations centered on the anus; high interest in feces; pleasure derived from elimination Early childhood Phallic Sexual sensations move to genitals; sexual desire for other sex parent and fear of same sex parent Middle childhood Latency Sexual desires repressed; focus on developing social and cognitive skills Adolescence Genital Re-emergence of sexual desire, now directed outside the family Human Development Midterm 1 4 Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory  Psychosocial Theory: Erikson’s theory that human development is driven by the need to become integrated into the social and cultural environment. Age Period Psychosocial Stage Main development challenge Infancy Trust v. mistrust Establish bond with trusted caregiver Toddlerhood Autonomy vs. shame and Develop a healthy sense of doubt self as distinct from others Early childhood Initiative vs. guilt Initiate activities in a purposeful way Middle childhood Industry vs. inferiority Begin to learn knowledge and skills of culture Adolescence Identity vs. identity Develop a secure and confusion coherent identity Early adulthood Intimacy vs. isolation Establish a committed, long term love relationship Middle adulthood Generativity vs. stagnation Care for others and contribute to well being of the young Late adulthood Ego integrity vs. despair Evaluate lifetime, accept it as it is. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory  Ecological theory: Bronfenbrenner’s theory that human development is shaped by five interrelated systems in the social environment.  According to Bronfenbrenner’s theory, there are 5 key levels or systems that play a part in human development: 1. The microsystem: contains the structures with which the child has direct contact. The microsystem encompasses the relationships and interactions a child has with her immediate surroundings. Structures in the microsystem include family, school, neighborhood, or childcare environments. At this level, relationships have impact in two directions - both away from the child and toward the child. 2. The mesosystem – this layer provides the connection between the structures of the child’s microsystem. Examples: the connection between the child’s teacher and his parents, between his church and his neighborhood, etc. 3. The exosystem – this layer defines the larger social system in which the child does not function directly. The structures in this layer impact the child’s development by interacting with some structure in her microsystem. 4. The macrosystem –While not being a specific framework, this layer Human Development Midterm 1 5 is comprised of cultural values, customs, and laws. The effects of larger principles defined by the macrosystem have a cascading influence throughout the interactions of all other layers. 5. The chronosystem – this system encompasses the dimension of time as it relates to a child’s environments. Elements within this system can be either external, such as the timing of a parent’s death, or internal, such as the physiological changes that occur with the aging of a child. As children get older, they may react differently to environmental changes and may be more able to determine more how that change will influence them. A stage model for this book  Emerging adulthood: new life stage in developed countries, lasting from the late teens through the twenties, in which people are gradually making their way toward taking on adult responsibilities in love and work.  Scientific Method: process of scientific investigation, involving a series of steps from identifying a research question through forming a hypothesis, selecting research methods and designs, collecting and analyzing data, and drawing conclusions. The Five Steps of the Scientific Method  Step 1: Identify a Question of Scientific Interest  Step 2: form a hypothesis  Step 3: choose a research method and a research design o Research method: the approach to investigating the hypothesis o Research design: plan for when and how to collect data for a study.  Step 4: Collect Data to test the hypothesis  Step 5: Draw conclusions and form new questions and hypotheses. Ethics in Human Development Research.  The requirements for Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the ethical guidelines of professional organizations usually include the following components. 1. Protection from physical and psychological harm 2. Informed consent prior to participation 3. Confidentiality 4. Deception and debriefing. Methods and Design in Research Research Methods Methods Advantages Limitations Human Development Midterm 1 6 Questionnaire Large sampole, quick data Preset response, no depth. collection Interview Large sample, quick data Time and effort of coding collection Observations Actual behaviour, not self- Observation may effect report behaviour Ethnographic Research Entire span of daily life Research must live among participants; possible bias Case studies Rich, detailed data Difficult to generalize results Biological Measurments Precise data Expensive; relation to behaviour may not be clear Experiment Control, identification of May not reflect real life cause and effect Natural experiment Illuminate gene- Unusual circumstances; rare. environment relations  Intervention (experimental research): program intended to change the attitudes or behaviour of the participants.  Cross-sectional research: Research design that involved collecting data from people of a variety of ages on a single occasion o Correlation: statistical relationship between two variables such that knowing one of the variables makes it possible to predict the other  Longitudinal research: research design in which the same persons are followed over time and data are collected on two or more occasions o Cohort effect: in scientific research, an explanation of group differences among people of different ages based on the fact that they grew up in different cohorts or historical periods. CHAPTER 2 Genetic Basics  Chromosome: sausage-shaped structure in the nucleus of cells, containing genes, which are paired, except in reproductive cells.  DNA: long strand of cell material that stores and transfers genetic information in all life forms  Gene: segment of DNA containing coded instructions for the growth and functioning of the organism.  Genome: entire store of an organism’s hereditary information  Genotype: organism’s unique genetic inheritance  Phenotype: organism’s actual characteristics, derived from its genotype.  Dominant-recessive inheritance: pattern of inheritance in which a pair of chromosomes contains one dominant and one recessive gene, but only the dominant gene is expressed in the phenotype.  Allele: on a pair of chromosomes, each of two forms of a gene  Incomplete dominance: form of dominant- recessive inheritance in which the phenotype is influenced primarily by the dominant gene but also to some extent by the recessive gene. Human Development Midterm 1 7 o Incomplete dominance in sickle cell inheritance: Two recessive genes for the sickle cell trait results in sickle cell anemia, but having one dominant and one recessive gene provides protection against malaria.  Polygenic inheritance: expression of phenotypic characteristics due to the interaction of multiple genes.  Regulator gene: gene that directs the activities of other genes  Gene therapy: method of treating genetic disorders that involves replacing the affected genes with genes that do not have the disorder. The sex chromosomes  Sex chromosomes: chromosomes that determine whether an organism is male (XY) or female (XX).  X-linked inheritance: pattern of inheritance in which a recessive characteristic is expressed because it is carries on the male’s X chromosome. Genes and Environment in Human Development  Nature-nurture debate: debate among scholars as to whether human development is influences mainly by genes(nature) or environment(nurture). Principles of Behaviour Genetics  Behaviour genetics: field in the study of human development that aims to identify the extent to which gened influence behaviour, primarily by comparing persons who share different amounts of their genes/  Monozygotic (MZ) twins: twins who have exactly the same genotype; also called identical twins  Dizygotic(DZ) twins: twins that result when two ova are released by a female instead of one, and both are fertilized by sperm; also called fraternal twins.  Heritability: statistical estimate of the extent to which genes are responsible for the differences among persons within a specific population, with values ranging from 0 to 1.00. o The higher the heritability, the more the characteristic is believed to be influenced. o Heritability estimates have been criticized for giving misleading impression of the influence of genetics on development. o Heritability estimates are estimates based on comparison of persons with different amounts of genetic material in common, not direct measures of the activity of genes.  Concordance rate: percentage that indicated the degree of similarity in phenotype among pairs of family members, expressed as a percentage. Gene-environment Interactions: Epigenesis and Reaction Ranges. Human Development Midterm 1 8  Epigenesis: in development, the continuous bidirectional interactions between genes and environment. o According to epigenetic theory, genetic activity responds constantly to environmental influences. Development is influences by genes but not purely determined by them.  Reaction range: range of possible developmental aths established by genes; environment determines where development takes place within that range.  The theory of genotype  environmental effects: theory proposing that genes influence the kind of environment we experience. The 3 forms of genotype Environment effects  Passive genotype  environment effects: the type that results from the fact that in a biological family, parents provide both genes and environment to their children.  Evocative genotype  environment effects: the type that results occur when a persons inherited characteristics evoke responses from others in the environment.  Active genotype  environment effects: the type that results when people seek out environments that correspond to their genotypic characteristics. Genotype  Environment effects over time  The three types of genotype  environment effects operate throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, but their relative balance changes over time.  In childhood, passive genotype  environment effects are especially pronounced, and active genotype  environment effects are relatively weak.  However, the balance changes as children move through adolescence and into adulthood.  Parental control diminishes, so passive genotype  environment effects also diminish.  Autonomy increases, so active genotype  environment effects also increase.  In adulthood, passive genotype  environment effects fade entirely, and active genotype  environment effects move to the forefront.  Evocative genotype  environment effects remain relatively stable from childhood through adulthood.  The theory of genotype environment effects has been the source of vigorous debate. Genes and Individual Development  Gametes: cells, distinctive to each sex, that are involved in reproduction (egg cells in the ovaries of the female and sperm in the testes of the male) Sperm and Egg Formation  Ovum: mature egg that develops in ovaries, about every 28 days in human females. Human Development Midterm 1 9  Meiosis: process by which gametes are generated, through separation and duplication of chromosome pairs, ending in four new gametes from the original cell, each with half the number of chromosomes of the original cell.  Mitosis: process of cell replication in which the chromosomes duplicate themselves and the cell divides into two cells, each with the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.  Cytoplasm: in an ovum, fluid that provides nutrients for the first 2 weeks of growth if the ovum is fertilized, until it reaches the uterus and begins drawing nutrients from the mother.  Crossing over: at the outset of meiosis, the exchange of genetic material between paired chromosomes. Conception  Follicle: during the female reproductive cycle, the ovum plus other cells that surround the ovum and provide nutrients.  About 14 days into a womens cycle, the mature follicle cursts and ovulation takes place as the ovum is released into the fallopian tube.  The cytoplasm will provide nutrients for the first 2 weeks of growth if the ovum is fertilized, until it reaches the uterus and begins drawing nutrients from the mother.  After the ovum enters the fallopian tube that fertilization can occur, so fertilization is most likely to take place if intercourse occurs on the day of ovulation or the 2 previous days.  Once the sperm penetrates the ovum’s membrane, the head of the sperm detaches from the tail and continues toward the nucleus of the cell while the tail remains outside  When the sperm head reaches the nucleus of the ovum, the final phase of meiosis is triggered in the ovum.  Fertilization takes place as the 23 chromosomes from the ovum pair up with the 23 chromosomes from the sperm.  Zygote: following fertilization, the new cell formed from the union of sperm and ovum.  Twins can also result when a zygote that has just begun the process of cell division splits into 2 separate clusters of cells, creating MZ twins  MZ twins are less common than DZ twins. Prenatal Development The Germinal Period (First 2 weeks)  Germinal period: the zygote travels down the fallopian tubes to the uterus and implants in the uterine wall. As it travels, it begins cell division and differentiation.  By week 1 following conception there is a ball of about 100 cells known as a blastocyst which is divided into 2 layers. Human Development Midterm 1 10 o Trophoblast: The outer layers of cells which will go on to form structures that provide protection and nourishment to the embryo. o Embryonic disk: the inner layer of cells, which will go on to form the embryo.  During the second week after conception, implantation occurs as the blastocyst becomes firmly embedded into the lining of the uterus.  Amnion, which surrounds the developing organism and fill with fluid, helping to keep a steady temperature for the organism and protect it against the friction of the mother’s movements.  In between the uterine wall and the embryonic disk a round structure, the placenta, begins to develop. The placenta will allow nutrients to pass from the mother to the developing organism and permit wastes to allow nutrients to pass from the mother to the developing organism and permit wastes to be removed.  An umbilical cord also begins to develop, connecting the placenta to the mother’s uterus.  Implantation is the outcome of the germinal period is all goes well. The Embryonic Period.  Embryonic period: weeks 3-8 of prenatal development. During this period, the trophoblast differentiated faster than the embryonic disk, developing the structures to protect and nurture the organism during pregnancy.  Gestation: elapsed time since conception.  First week: the embryonic disk forms 3 layers: o Ectoderm: the outer layer of cells, which will eventually become the skin, hair, nails, sensory organs and nervous system. (brain and spinal cord) o Mesoderm: the middle of the 3 cell layers, which will become the muscles, cones, reproductive system, and the circulatory system. o Endoderm: the inner layer of cells, which will become the digestive system and the respiratory system.  By the end of week 3: part of the ectoderm forms the neural tube, which will become the spinal cord and brain.  Once formed, the neural tube begins producing neurons (cells of the nervous system) in immense quantities.  Fourth week: the shape of the head becomes apparent, and the eyes, nose, mouth and ears begin to form. The heart begins to beat and the ribs, muscle and digestive tract appear.  Weeks 5-8: Buds that will become arms and legs appear in week 5, developing webbed fingers and toes that lose their webbing by week 8.  The placenta and the umbilical cord become fully functional.  The digestive system develops, liver begins to producing blood cells.  Heart develops separate chambers. Human Development Midterm 1 11  End of week 8: all the main body parts have formed, and all of the main organs except the sex organs. The time embryo responds to touch, especiallu around its mouth, and it can move. The Fetal Period  Fetal period: Week 9 to birth. The organism continue to develop, and there is tremendous growth in sheer size.  After 3 months: typical fetus weighs about 3 ounces and is 3 inches long.  Trimester: one of the 3 month periods of prenatal development.  2 trimester: the fetus becomes active and begins to respond to its environment.  Babies born before 22 weeks rarely survive  By the third trimester, brain development has progressed. Prenatal Care in Traditional Cultures  Midwife: person who assists in pregnant womens prenatal care and the birth process. Essentials of Prenatal Care Before Pregnancy  Have a medical examination to ensure that there are no disease that may affect prenatal development. If not fully vaccinated, obtain vaccinations for diseases, such as rubella, that can damage prenatal development  Avoid tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, which may make it more difficult to become pregnant and are damaging to prenatal development During Pregnancy  Diet  Exercise  Teratogens Teratogen: behaviour, environment or bodily condition that can have damaging influence on prenatal development. Prenatal Problems Sex Chromosome Disorders  A person may have an extra X chromosome (resulting in XXX of XXY), or an extra Y chromosome (XYY), or may have only an X and no second sex chromosome.  2 consequences of sex chromosome disorders: o The person has some type of cognitive deficit, such as mental retardation, a learning disorder or speech impairments. o The person has some abnormality in the development of the reproductive system at puberty, such as underdeveloped testes and penis in boys or no ovulation in girls. Down Syndrome Human Development Midterm 1 12  Down syndrome: genetic disorder due to carrying an extra chromosome on the 21 pair. Teratogens Malnutrition  Most common  Medical experts recommend that pregnant women gain 25-30 pounds and that they eat a healthy, balanced diet.  Dramatic evidence of this effect has been shown in recent decades in China. o China had the highest incidence in the world of 2 serious prenatal disorders, anencephaly, in which parts of the brain are missing or malformed, and spinabifida, which is an extreme distortion in the shape of the spinal column. o The main cause of these diseases was a deficiency in folic acid, a nutrient found in fruits and vegetables. Infectious Diseases  Rubella: Over half of infants whose mothers contracted this illness during the embryonic period have severe problems including blindness, deafness, and mental retardation.  AIDS: HIV/AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child during prenatal development through blood, during birth, or through breast milk. It damages brain development prenatally  Alcohol: Causes most widespread damage. When mothers drink heavily during pregnancy, their infants are at risk for Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), which includes facial deformities, heart problems, misshapen limbs, and a variety of cognitive problems such as mental retardation and attention and memory deficits.  Tobacco: Women who smoke during pregnancy are at higher risk of miscarriage and premature birth, and smoking is the leading cause of low birth weight in developed countries.  Other Teratogens: Maternal use of drugs such as heroin, and marijuana causes physical. Cognitive, and behavioural problems in infants. o Certain prescription drugs can also cause harm. Prenatal Diagnosis Techniques of prenatal monitoring  Ultrasound: machine that uses sound waves to produce images of the fetus during pregnancy. o Used to screen down syndrome  Amniocentesis: prenatal procedure in which a needle is used to withdraw amniotic fluid containing fetal cells from the placenta, allowing possible prenatal problems to be detected.  Chorionic Villus sampling (CVS): prenatal technique for diagnosing genetic problems, involving taking a sample of cells at 5-10 weeks gestation by inserting a tube into the uterus. Human Development Midterm 1 13 Genetic Counselling.  The counsellor takes a comprehensive family history from each prospective parent, seeking to identify patterns that may indicate problematic recessive or X-linked genes.  Then each partner provides a blood, skin or urine sample that can be used to analyze their chromosomes to identify possible problems Infertility  Infertility: the inability to attain pregnancy after at least a year of regular sexual intercourse without contraception. Infertility Treatments  Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): methods for overcoming infertility that include artificial insemination, fertility drugs, and IVF.  Artificial insemination: procedure of injecting sperm directly into the uterus.  In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): form of infertility treatment that involves using drugs to stimulate the growth of multiple follicles in the ovaries, removing the follicles and combining them with sperm, then transferring the most promising zygotes to the uterus.  Animalcule: microscopic human being. Infertility belt: geographical area in central Africa with infertility rates as high as 30%, apparently due to high rates of malnutrition CHAPTER 3  Oxytocin: Hormone released by pituitary gland that causes labour to begin. Stage of the Birth Process  Stage 1: Labour- Longest and most taxing stage. Contractions increase in duration, frequency, and intensity, causing the cervix to dilate.  Stage 2: Delivery. Usually takes half and hour to an hour, but there is a wide variation. The mother pushes, and the baby crowns and then exits the birth canal and enters the world.  Stage 3: Expelling of Placenta and Umbilical Cord. Contractions continue as the placenta and umbilical cord is expelled. The process usually takes a few minutes. - Episiotomy: incision to make the vaginal opening larger during birth process. Birth Complications - Failure to progress and breech presentation o Failure to progress means that the woman has begun the birth process but it is taking longer than normal. Human Development Midterm 1 14 o Breech presentation- positioning of the fetus so that feet or buttocks, rather than the head, is positioned to come first out of the birth canal. o Cesarean Delivery: (C-section) type of birth in which mother’s abdomen is cut open and fetus is retrieved directly from uterus. o For women who have had a C-section, there is a possibility of having a vaginal birth with the next baby, a procedure known as a VBAC (vaginal birth after caesarean section). Cultural and Historical Variations in Birth Beliefs and Practices Cultural Variations in Birth Beliefs Beliefs and Rituals Surrounding Birth  In some cultures, birth must take place away from where most people reside, so that others will not be contaminated by it.  Many cultures have beliefs that the mother remains unclean long after the birth and must be kept away from others, for her own sake as well as teirs.  In Traditional Vietnam, the mother as to avoid going out for at least 30 days after birth, in order not to contaminate the rest of the village or endanger herself or her infant.  Some cultures have rituals for women to purify themselves after birth and not just non-Western cultures Meanings of the Placenta.  The placenta is a component of the birth process that has often carried its own special cultural beliefs.  In some cultures, the methods for disposing the placenta are clear and simple: burial, burning, or throwing it in a river, or keeping it in a special place reserved for placentas.  In developed countries the placenta is recognized as having special value as a course of hormones and nutrients. Hospitals give their placentas to researchers, or to cosmetic manufacturers who use them to make products such as hair conditioner. Cultural Variations in Birth Practices  Midwives are usually the main birth assistants in rural areas of developing countries.  Who helps? o Midwives tend to be older women who have had children themselves but are now beyond childbearing age. o In some cultures, she receives what she believes to be a supernatural calling in a dream or a vision. In other culture, the position of midwife is inherited from mother to daughter. o Some cultures allow women to volunteer as midwives. o Typically, the woman who is to be a midwife spend several years in apprenticeship to be a more experienced midwife before taking the Human Development Midterm 1 15 lead in addicting with birth. In other cultures, midwives have been regarded with contempt or fear. o In India, Midwives come from the castes that have the lowest status.  Easing the Birth o Massages make the birth easier and it also allows the midwife to determine the position of the fetus. o In many cultures in Asia and South America, the mother is forbidden from eating “hot” foods. This helps reassure the expectant mother and enhance her confidence going into birth process. o When the women begins to go into labour, the midwife is called, and the expectant mother’s female relative gather around her. o Epidural: the injection of an aesthetic drug into the spinal fluid to help the mother manage the pain while also remaining alert. o After birth, typically the baby is laid on the mother’s abdomen until the placenta an umbilical cord expelled from her uterus. o A variety of strategies are used to promote delivering the placenta, such as massage, medication, and rituals involving opening or expelling, or attempts to make the woman sneeze or vomit.  Midwives Versus Doctors o In the west, as in other cultures, most births throughout most of history were administered by midwives o This began to change in the 15 century, as a witch-hunting fervor swept over Europe. In 1486 an influential witch-hunting manual was published by two monks, declaring that “No one does more harm to the Catholic faith than midwives.” o In the early 18 century, Medical schools were established throughout Europe, and many of the new doctors considered delivering babies to be the domain of physicians. o Forceps: pair of tongs used to extract the baby’s head from the womb during delivery. o Obstetrics: field of medicine that focuses on prenatal care and birt
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