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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1020
Tuuli Kukkonen

Gender and SexualitySexbiological characteristics of males and femalesGender social attitudes and behaviours of males and femalesRole behavior expected of someone who holds a particular statusGender Rolebehaviour expected of a female or male in a particular cultureSex Rolebehavior defined by biological constraintsSocialization the process by which people learn characteristics of their groupGender Identity a persons psychological sense of being male or femaleCross dressers a member of onegender dresses up in clothes and other genderspecific attire to appear to be a member of the other genderTransgendered personsa person with the biological sex of one gender who has the identity or selfconcept of the other gender and undergoes processes andor procedure to change that sex Intersexed HermaphroditeA person who has intersexed sexual organs A person for who the biological process of sex differentiation has been nonstandard Rarebetween 1500 and 113000 live births Causeso Chromosomal abnormalitieso Errors of metabolism affecting reproductive hormoneso Exposure to exogenous steroids during fetal development Gender Roles and KidsYoung kids tend to be more accepting There are always exceptions to the rule and it is largely dependent of how the parents are bringing the children up Majority of households have certain types of gender stereotypes that will be taught Kids who dont fit in with the norm may feel that there is something wrong with them some kids may go through phases even they are not transgendered but they feel bad Gender Roles Across Culture Northern Thailando Kathoey as a third gender Biological male with feminine social behaviourso Tom Biological female who wants to be accepted as and live like a mano Samoan Faafafine Biological males who dress and act feminine Attracted to straight men Considered a separate category not seen as men within society Why Do Gender Roles Differ Sociobiology o Social behavior results from biological differences Testosterone and estrogen Social Learning Theoryo We learn behaviours from our interaction with the environmento 2 kinds of learning Reinforcement rewards and punishments Modeling imitation Cognitive Development Theoryo How children think and reason changes as they grow older 2 year olds5 year olds have a sense of gender identity 67 years olds have achieved gender permanence Gender Schema Theory o Children develop a framework of knowledge about what males and females typically do then use that framework to interpret new informationo Gender stereotypesGender Socialization Parental InfluencesFathers and mothers treat their children differently4 Ways parents socialize their childrenPhysical and verbal manipulations o What degree children are handled more gently or roughly Stereotypical genderidentified objects o Trucks dolls sports equipmentDifferent verbal descriptions of the same behavior o Gentle aggressive noncompetitiveStereotypical genderidentified activitieso Cooking cleaningWhat Fathers Do Spend more time with sons than daughters Are playmates with children rough and tumble playSet higher standards for sons than daughters Stress feelings and emotions with daughters more than sonsWhat Mothers Do Express affection and verbal praise to daughters and sons equally Stress emotions and feelings with daughters more than sons Peer InfluencesPeers offer important approval or disapproval Socialize to conform to certain styles of interaction How girls are influencedo Dolls o AppearanceHow boys are influenced o Toughness o Action figures Teacher Influences More attention from teachers for boyso More likely to be called ono More likely to be given time to talko More likely to be given praise Boys tend to be louder and more demanding Better grades for girls except science math and reading by middle schoolo Less likely to be called ono If incorrect less likely to be instructed about the correct way or answer Work Influences Occupations dominated by femaleso Secretary receptionist nurseOccupations dominated by males o Construction engineering farming Gender Socialization Media Women and selfesteem Media and men o Increasing pressure for men to fit a certain physical criteriao Men eating disorders on the rise Gender Roles in Transition Benefits of Traditional Gender Roles Promotes StabilityBenefits to malesInstrumental focus on work identityHigher income and other job advantagesLess domestic work and marital stressBenefits to Females Expressive to focus on feelings and others needs Identity tied to relationships rather than work Closer attachments with children
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