Couples Families and Relationships.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1020
Sarah Murray

Couples Families and Relationships – Exam Review Chapter 7 – The Middle Years The Middle Years are a time of change and Transition for parents and adolescents. Children become independent following various time-tables. Midlife adults must make time to adapt to the changes that happen in their own lives. Parent Generation Current parenting generation consists of baby boomers (ranging from about 40-60). Midlife is a time of evaluation and a time to look at yourself and see if you have made a difference to society through forms of generativity. They make wish to build a new identity if they see no major life change. At this age the fact that they are going to die catches up with them. They also must assess work goals and close relationships are assessed. Some people choose to make major changes to their lives to increase their satisfaction Adolescence Brings physical, emotional, and social change. Teens often take risks because they cannot control their impulses. The understanding, support, and monitoring from parents is important to encourage healthy development. Older teens need to develop a sense of identity in order to choose their career path and build significant relationships. Independence is delayed as emerging adults build a foundation for their adult life, including getting their education. Because of this, many continue to live with their parents. Parents who encourage independence develop a healthy relationship with their kids. The Not-so-Empty-Nest and the Sandwich Generation Obstacles such as delayed marriage, single parenthood, employment difficulties, and education often prevent the younger generation from living alone. In general, these arrangements benefit both parties. Adults may also choose to move back home if their parents require increasing care. Key Terms Generativity: the focus on one’s legacy Midlife Crisis: extreme strain as a person re-evaluates life in middle- age Sandwich Generation: middle-aged adults who experience stress of continuing dependency of their children and increasing disability of their parents (typically women). Revolving Door: children that repeatedly move in and out of their parents’ home. Chapter 8 – Getting Older The population in Canada is getting older as a result of the baby boom population aging and a low birth rate. Age is difficult to define since it consists of several different dimensions. The developmental task of old age is allowing the next generation to take over leadership, and to find order in the final stages of your life. The “Young” Old People can retire earlier now because of better pension plans, however there are many inequities associated with pensions. Women in particular are disadvantaged because of their lower employment rates, or lower pay with less benefits. When people grow older, their interests shift from work to other activities, family roles change to an important area of social support. Men are more likely to be married in older age than women because of lower life expectancy of men. Most couples at this age are fairly satisfied with their relationships and patterns developed early on are likely to continue. Retirement can also affect relationships due to changing roles. It can also be difficult when only one partner is retired. Sex is still important to a relationship, especially for men. Sibling relationships redevelop, especially in the widowed and childless. Relationships with children are often based on help, and the relationships with grandchildren depend on how well the grandparents get along with the parents. Grandparents can be a great support to grandchildren, and in some cases provide day-care. The “Old” Old Health and Self-care become big issue as a person ages. Life-satisfaction is related to independence as one age. Often prolonged illness and disease is scarier to elders than death itself. Adjustment to widowhood involves the loss of identity, purpose and status. Economic hardship may result from death, both because of funeral costs and a drop in income. Key Issues Involving older people and their family members: 1) Independence vs. dependence 2) Connectedness vs. separateness 3) Openness vs. privateness Few seniors live in institutions. They wish to remain connected with the people they love without disrupting their lifestyle. Privacy is important to them but becomes difficult with personal health problems. Different cultures are much more likely than native Canadians to live in 3-generational families. In the past, aboriginal elders had very important roles with young people, teaching them traditions and language. This role was disrupted with residential schools etc. but is once again valued. Key Terms Chronological Age: the number of years a person has lived. Physical Aging: changes that occur to the body with age. Psychological Age: the attitudes and beliefs about one’s age. Social Age: cultural norms that specify appropriate behaviour for people of a give age. Clawback: the practice of defining benefits as income and taxing them and of requiring repayment when income reaches a certain level. Chapter 12 – The Working Family Family Care Family care is closely associated with the attitudes of women and work. When mothers’ paid employment has been seen as important for society, daycare for children was provided. Current attitudes reflected in government spending enforce a belief that families are responsible for their own members. Many parents have trouble finding affordable day care that reflects their work hours. Work and family are related through conflicting demands. A major stress on women comes from the conflicting messages of family and work, not all workplaces are responsive to family needs. Modern appliances have lessened the housework load, but these duties still consume a great deal of time and the burden usually still falls to women, even if both partners are working. Burnout, the result of extreme stress, is often related to the conflict between family and work, especially in women. It results in poor performance in all areas of one’s life. Work Arrangements One solution is to adapt work hours to fit your family’s schedule. You can adapt your work hours or start earlier or later. People can start working at home and may split a full-time job between two people. This may not always be financially sustainable. Key Terms Burnout: a state of physical and emotional exhaustion resulting from prolonged stress from trying to live up to impossible goals. Compressed Workweek: a full-time job in which a workweek is concentrated in three or four days, allowing for several days in succession off work. Flextime: an arrangement in which full-time employees can determine when they arrive at and when they leave work. Spillover: a situation where family and work role or time demands interfere with each other. Telecommuting: working outside the office using a computer. Chapter 15 – Poverty and the Family What is poverty? There are two ways to define poverty: first measures absolute poverty and uses a standard of the minimum amount of money required to ensure physical survival, the second is a relative measure based on the standard of social well-being. In North-America we focus on the “deserving poor”. The most common definition of poverty used by Stats Canada is the LICO (low-income cut off). Who are the poor? There are 4 principle groups of poor people: 1) Older women- often haven’t been employed and are solely dependent on the government pension. 2) Young adults- affected by the shift of employment from well-paying areas to poorer paying consumer areas. They often can only get part time work. 3) Young working couples- tend to be single earner families with many children, includes single mothers. 4) Low-educated people- often cannot find good paying jobs. Coping with Poverty People in poverty have various strategies to cope with it. They use help from family and friends, unreported work (so that they can still receive welfare), and sometimes illegal activities. The situation is worsened by the lack of affordable housing for families. With so much income going towards housing costs, there is little money left for other essentials such as food. This is one of the reasons why people are homeless. Shelter conditions do not favour family living, both because of lack of privacy and some residents have problems that disturb others. Because of this, shelters are often a last resort. Children in Poverty Children are the largest single group that lives in poverty. Poverty affects their health and education. Nutrition may be inadequate and resistance to illness could be low. Many children from low i
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