Midterm Notes Sections 1-4 .docx

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Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course
FRHD 1020
Professor
Robyn Pitman
Semester
Winter

Description
• ΠΦΛΑΓ: Παρεντσ, φαμιλιεσ, ανδ φριενδσ οφ λεσβιανσ ανδ γαψσ Δεφινιτιονσ οφ Φαμιλιεσ: Λεγαλ: Ρελατεσ το χυστοδψ, μαιντενανχε, χομμον λαω, ανδ χοηαβιτατιον. Εαχη προϖινγ ηασ διφφερεντ λαωσ αβουτ φαμιλιεσ. Λεγαλ δεφινιτιονσ τενδ το χηανγε οϖερ τιμε. Νορματιϖε: Νορματιϖε φαμιλιεσ αρε φαμιλιεσ τηατ αρε σηαρεδ βψ α μαϕοριτψ οφ πεοπλε ιν α χουντρψ ορ ρεγιον. Δεφινεδ ασ σοχιαλλψ αππροϖεδ ανδ λεγιτιματε φαμιλιεσ. Σοχιαλ Χονστρυχτιον: Ρελατεσ το νορματιϖε φαμιλιεσ. Σοχιαλ χονστρυχτιον φαμιλιεσ αρε φαμιλιεσ τηατ γροω το βε μορε αχχεπτεδ βψ τηε ωορλδ ωιτη τηε μορε πεοπλε τηατ ϕοιν τηεμ. (Ι.ε λεσβιαν ανδ γαψ χουπλεσ) Τηεορετιχαλ δεφινιτιον: Τηεορετιχαλ δεφινιτιονσ οφ φαμιλιεσ αρε φαμιλιεσ τηατ αρε δεφινεδ βψ τηεορψ. Αν εξαμπλε ισ τηε δεφινιτιον οφ μαρριαγε, ασ ιτ ισ α τηεορψ. Τηε προβλεμ ωιτη τηεορετιχαλ ισ τηατ ιτ δοεσν’τ τακε ιντο αχχουντ διφφερεντ τψπεσ οφ φαμιλιεσ. Ρεσεαρχη δεφινιτιον: Ρεσεαρχη δεφινιτιονσ αρε σπεχιφιχ ρεσεαρχη θυεστιονσ αβουτ φαμιλιεσ. Ιτ ισ υσυαλλψ δεριϖεδ φρομ α ηυνχη ανδ ισ λινκεδ το μεασυρεμεντ. Γεοργε Μυρδοχκ’σ Δεφινιτιον οφ α φαμιλψ: Δεφινεσ φαμιλιεσ ασ τωο αδυλτσ ονε μαλε, ανδ φεμαλε, ωιτη ατ λεαστ ονε χηιλδ, οωνεδ ορ αδοπτεδ, ωηο σηαρε τηε σαμε ρεσιδενχε, εχονομιχ φινανχεσ, ανδ ωηο ρεπροδυχε. Χενσυσ Φαμιλψ: Στατσ Χαναδα δεφινεσ α φαμιλψ ασ α μαρριεδ χουπλε ωιτη ορ ωιτηουτ χηιλδρεν, α χομμον λαω ρελατιονσ σηιπ, ορ α λονε παρεντ/γρανδπαρεντ λιϖινγ ωιτη ατ λεαστ ονε χηιλδ ιν τηε σαμε ηομε. Αλλ οφ ωηιχη χαν ινχλυδε χουπλεσ ειτηερ σαμε ορ οπποσιτε σεξ. Προχεσσ Βασεδ: Προχεσσ ρατηερ τηαν φορμ οφ α φαμιλψ. Μοορε−Λαππε δεφινεσ α φαμιλψ ασ τηοσε ωηο σηαρε ιντιμαχψ ανδ λιφε εξπεριενχεσ. ςανιερ Ινστιτυτε Δεφινιτιον οφ Φαμιλψ: Δεφινεσ α φαμιλψ ασ ανψ τωο πεοπλε ωηο λιϖε τογετηερ χονσενσυαλλψ ανδ αρε ρελατεδ βψ βιρτη, αδοπτιον, ορ ρελατιονσηιπ. Ρεσπονσιβιλιτιεσ ινχλυδε χαρε φορ οτηερσ, αδδιτιον οφ νεω μεμβερσ τηρυ βιρτη ορ αδοπτιον, σοχιαλιζατιον οφ χηιλδρεν, αφφεχτιϖε νυρτυρανχε. Πηενομενολογιχαλ: Νοτ γοϖερνεδ βψ ρυλεσ, νορμσ, ορ χυλτυρε. Φαμιλψ ςΣ. Ηουσεηολδ: • μαρκετ ρεσεαρχηερσ υσε τηε τερμ “ηουσεηολδ” ρατηερ τηαν φαμιλψ ασ νοτ αλλ φαμιλιεσ λιϖε υνδερ τηε σαμε ροοφ Φορμερ Μοδερν Φαμιλψ: • φατηερ, μοτηερ, ανδ χηιλδρεν λιϖινγ ιν α ηουσεηολδ, φαμιλψ οφ οριγιν ανδ προχρεατιον. Ποστ Μοδερν Φαμιλψ: Βινυχλεαρ Φαμιλψ: Φαμιλιεσ λιϖινγ ιν τωο ηουσεηολδσ (ι.ε διϖορχεδ παρεντσ ωιτη χηιλδρεν) Εξτενδεδ Φαμιλψ: Ηουσεηολδσ λιϖινγ ωιτη αυντσ, χουσινσ, ετχ Αφφιλιατεδ Κιν: Πεοπλε ψου’ρε νοτ ρελατεδ το βυτ ψου φεελ ασ ιφ ψου αρε (ι.ε φριενδσ) Τεξτβοοκ Ματεριαλ: • Φορμαλ δεφινιτιονσ οφ φαμιλιεσ αρε εξτρεμελψ ιμπορταντ ασ τηεψ δετερμινε ηεαλτη χαρε χοϖεραγε, προπερτψ ριγητσ, ανδ γοϖερνμενταλ ριγητ. • Βεινγ δεφινεσ ασ ηαϖινγ α φαμιλψ οφτεν χαρριεσ ωιτη ιτ α στατυσ οφ νορμαλιτψ Discuss the following ideas and why they are important to consider when conducting family research (see pages 33-37 of textbook) Social dynamics: Change can only be measured across time points • Identity and change are central to developing a dynamic theory • Does not look at unique events or changes • Want analysis to be generalizable Events: Individuals lives are experienced as events • E.g., birth, graduation, wedding, death • Actual date is not important • The event contains the information about our lives • Most life events are considered “normative” Stage: Duration of time characterized by a particular property not present before the stage and not present after the stage • Stages have a beginning point marked by an event or transition event • Ending or exit transition event marks the end of the stage Stage transitions: Every person and organization experiences transitions • Many contain intense adjustment which lead to high stress • E.g., birth of a child Pathway: At any point, always possibility of a stage transition • Transitions depend on • Stage you currently occupy • How long you have been in that stage • The social norms favoring one type of transition over another • Individuals think their pathway is their choice • But, historical and random factors arise to change or modify our pathways • Examples: War, Depression, Natural disasters Discuss how the example from the film Up! Transition #1Single Transition #2 Married Transition #3Not able to have children Transition #4 Childless Transition #5 Couple • Types of family research o Cross-cultural Compare data on family life among different kinds of societies • Margaret Mead o HistoricalCompare census, social agency or demographic data to determine patterns of family life o LongitudinalUse questionnaires or interviews over a number of years to follow up on earlier investigations o Content analysisType of qualitative research • Systematic examination of cultural artifacts or various forms of communicate to determine themes Concerns with research Be critical • Do not automatically accept research results as “facts” or “truth” but consider the research context Possible flaws in research studies • Researcher is bias • Sample is bias • No control group • Questions poorly worded • Time and other distortions Why we need Theory Help us predict relationships Help us to explain relationships Strong research has strong theoretical underpinnings o Life Course Theory and the 5 principles (no cons/no pros identified) 1. Human development occurs throughout life 2. Individuals construct their own lives through choices and actions 3. Life courses are shaped by the times we live in (depending on what is happening in the world) 4. The same events affect individuals/families differently depending on when they occur in the life course 5. lives are linked o Ecological Systems Theory: Our lives are in different layers Micro system consists of people and objects in an individuals immediate environment who are closest to them • E.g., Parents and siblings • Can have more than 1 microsystem (e.g., family, daycare) Meso system  (inter-connected) • What happens in one microsystem will influence the others • E.g., Bad day at work or school, you’re grouchy at home Exo system Social setting that you might not experience first hand or indirectly, but still influences development • E.g., Mother’s work environment Macro systemSubcultures and cultures that the other three systems are embedded in • Broader social and cultural context the child lives in • Attitudes, beliefs, and heritage Chrono systemAll the systems change over time • Not static, but always changing • Examples of changes • The child’s microsystem changes when an older sibling leaves home to attend college • The child’s exosystem changes when a mother leaves an easy low paying job for a more challenging high paying job Ecological Systems Theory Pro’s and Con’s • Pro: Valuable because it stresses the interaction between families and their political and social environments • Con: Difficult to observe how environments exert changes upon families o Family Systems TheoryFamily members are interconnected • Each member influences the other • Change in one part of the system, changes other parts • Equilibrium  Family will try to make adjustments to go back to the way it was before the change Systems have: • Subsystems • Roles • Rules • Boundaries • Families are dynamic • Responding to needs of environment ProsTakes into account the dynamic nature of family systems Cons • Does not take into account greater ____________ environment to a large extent • From work with __________families • How well does it explain normative families? Textbook: Chapter 2 Material NOT covered in Lecture Μοτιϖατιοναλ Τηεοριεσ: Ασσυμε τηατ ψου χηοοσε ορ δετερμινε ωηψ ανδ ηοω ψου δο σομετηινγ. Νορματιϖε Τηεοριεσ: Ασσυμε τηατ σοχιαλ νορμσ πρεδιχτ βεηαϖιορ ανδ αχτιον Μαχρο−Ηιστοριχαλ Τηεοριεσ: Ασσυμε τηατ φορχεσ βεψονδ τηε ινδιϖιδυαλ ορ σοχιετψ χρεατε χηανγε. Ινστιτυτιοναλ Νορμσ: Σοχιαλ ρυλεσ αγρεεδ υπον βψ μοστ μεμβερσ οφ α σοχιετψ. Εξαμπλε: “Ονε σηουλδ γετ α δριϖερσ λιχενσε ορ ανδ εδυχατιον ωηιλε ονε ισ α ψουνγ αδυλτ” Τηισ ισ α τιμινγ νορμ ορ αγε−γραδεδ νορμ. Οφφ Τιμε ανδ Ουτ οφ Σεθυενχε: Σοχιαλ νορμσ αβουτ τηε εξπεχτεδ σεθυενχε οφ εϖεντσ. Φορ εξαμπλε φινισηινγ ψουρ εδυχατιον βεφορε στατινγ α φυλλ−τιμε ϕοβ. Ανδ τηατ ψου γετ α χαρεερ βεφορε ψου γετ μαρριεδ, ανδ τηατ ψου μαρρψ βεφορε ηαϖινγ α χηιλδ. Φαμιλψ Σταγεσ: Τηε διφφερεντ σταγεσ οφ φαμιλψ. Τηισ χαν ινχλυδε μαρριαγε, χοηαβιτατιον, ηαϖινγ α χηιλδ, ετχ. Σταγεσ οφ φαμιλψ δεϖελοπμεντ χαν εασιλψ βε δεφινεδ ασ στρυχτυρε. Α δεϖελοπμενταλ τασκ μυστ βε χομπλετεδ βεφορε μοϖινγ ον το τηε νεξτ σταγε. Δυρατιον ανδ Τρανσιτιονσ: Ασσυμεσ τηατ ωιτηιν τηε φιρστ τωο ψεαρσ οφ μαρριαγε, τηε χηανχεσ οφ ηαϖινγ α χηιλδ αρε εξτρεμελψ ηιγη. Ασ τιμε μοϖεσ ον, τηε λικελιηοοδ οφ α μαρριεδ χουπλε το ηαϖε α χηιλδ δεχλινεσ. • Soul mate: Aperson who is temperamentally suited to another • High scores on intimacy, commitment, passion, value similarity, and needs fulfillment • Profound connection • Mystical element • Best friend, confidante, and romantic partner • Willingness to work together Definition of love: Intimacy with, caring for, and commitment to another person Reis &Aron, 2008 definition of love • “Desire to enter, maintain, or expand a close, connected, and ongoing relationship with another person or entity” • The findings of Fehr (1988), specifically the features that are related to love, the ones connected to love, and how people describe love and joy • Asked participants to list key “features of love” and then asked a second sample to rate the importance of these features • Central to love were trust and caring • Uncertainty and butterflies were consider to be peripheral • People also describe love and joy similarly • Love = specified • Joy = generalized • Past and present reasons for marriage Would you marry someone who had all the qualities you were looking for in a partner, but whom you were not in love with? • • Most people would say “no” • • Marring for love is a relatively new phenomena • • In past, people married for political, economic, practical, and family reasons • • Not love • The history of love 1967 trends and love • 76% of women and 35% of men would have married an otherwise perfect partner who they did not love (Kephart, 1967) • North Americans consider romance as a reason to marry to an unpredicted degree Ancient Greece • • Passionate attraction to another person considered a form of madness not love • • Platonic love was most admired (e.g., between two men) Ancient Egypt • • Royalty often married their siblings • • Hoped that married couples would be friend and get along 1100's • • Heterosexual love took on more positive connotations • • Knights sought love as a noble quest • • Adultery common • • men single and women married to someone else 1200's to 1500's (Late MiddleAges) • • Marriage not romantic, a serious matter • • passionate romantic love considered “dangerous trapdoor leading to hell” not even condoned between husband wife (Ackerman, 2004) • • Love considered to be doomed • • People in love prevented from being together by death or marriage to others • 1600's to 1700's • Romance and passion could be linked to marriage • But idea was not widespread Now / Today • Marriage for love not common in all parts of the world • • Romantic / Passionate Love • • State of intense longing for union with another • • Lust = sexual arousal / physical state honeymoon stage • • Sexual desire = psychological state • Companionate Love • • Affection for those with whom our lives are deeply entwined • • Within 6 to 30 months • • Intimacy, commitment, and affection • • 2 Components of romantic passionate love • Physical arousal (e.g., fast heart beat) • Attribution of arousal to another person • • • Can be misattributions (excitation transfer) • • Arousal caused by one event attributed to a second event which seems more influential than it really is o The Bridge study by Dutton and Aron (1974) is a good example of excitation transfer and is testable Bridge Study: they had 2 bridges; one that is scary and one that is secure. There were attractive women at the end of each bridge. They were told that once they reached the end of the bridge they could call the experimenter if they had any questions. The group that called the attractive woman was the one who walked across the scary bridge. They turned this fear they had into arousal for the woman •Discuss how love is blind and how this affects our perception of our relationship partners • • People consistently underestimate lover’s faults, hold idealized images of their  lovers • • We have a tendency to see our partners’ as more similar to ourselves then they  are earlier in relationships • • Seeing our partners as positive and desirable raises our self‐esteem • Discuss the similarities and differences between friendship and love and how friendship is related to deeper forms of love Similarities • Level of acceptance (liking, positive evaluation) • Trust and respect  • Levels of confiding  • Understanding • Satisfaction and happiness Differences • Greater fascination/ infatuation for a partner • Greater sense of excessiveness  • Friendship is the foundation for deeper love • Deep friendships more common and can be a source of conflict in love  relationships • Using Rubin's Love and Liking scales, discuss what sets love and liking apart • Intimacy, dependence and caring • Discuss the differences in same-sex love for lesbian and gay couples •  Lesbian and Gay Couples  • • Lesbian couples relationships appear to be more stable and enduring then gay  male couples relationships • • Men not socialized to discuss emotional needs – can be challenge in gay  relationships • • Long term, monogamous relationships may not be supported by gay male  community • Discuss the role of age and experience when it comes to love • • Age confounded with experience • • Older = longer relationships and greater number of relationships overall • • People mellow with age • • Less physical arousal • • Less intense  • • More positive overall • Discuss the gender differences in love for men and women • Men and women more similar than different in love however – a few differences • Men • • Possess more romantic attitudes than women • • More likely to be believe in love at first sight  • • Men are less discriminating in terms of partner • • Men put more stock in romance – passion is most related to men’s satisfaction in  relationships • Women • • More cautious about who they love • • In general, express more companionate love towards partners than men • Love across different cultures • Cross cultural similarities in concepts of passionate and companionate love • Cross culturally, individuals values intelligence, kindness, and understanding in a  mate • Differences in the importance of passionate love and intimacy for marriage vs.  benefits to family and others • Evolutionary Theory: how it works, it's function and the role of lust, attachment, and attraction Evolutionary theorists suggest that love is a “commitment device” • Leads people to forego attractive immediate rewards in favor of longer term benefits • People in love do think less about possible alternative partners • After focusing on love for current partner • People report fewer thoughts about an attractive alternative and reca
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