Anthropometric assessment: human body; most common; measures circumference; low cost/skill. Biochemical assessment: body functions (urine/blood); metabolic changes; expensive; short term nutritional problems. Clinical assessment: physical signs; difficult to quantify; only for severe/typical disorders. Dietary assessment: survey; can be biased; people don"t always remember. Undernutrition affects: labour productivity, intellectual development, educational attainment, breastfeeding and menstruation. Vulnerable groups: rural areas, children, pregnant/breastfeeding women, elderly women. Shift ad curve: change in income, changes in preference, change in diet shift as curve: availability of resources, changes in technology, efficiency of resource use. Income elastic: 1% income = more than 1% consumption income inelastic: 1% income = less than 1% consumption. Vitamin a: night blindness, increased mortality from respiratory/gastrointestinal disease. Iodine: learning disabilities, mental retardation and brain damage (goiter). Iron: anemia, reduced ability to learn, increased susceptibility to infection. Benefits of breastfeeding: secure supply, passive immunity, hygiene, complete nutrition.