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FOOD2150 Final Exam Terms

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Food Science
FOOD 2150
Doug Goff

Nutrient: compounds of food that are indispensible to the body’s functioning – provide energy, serve as building material, maintain or repair body parts, support growth (water, carbohydrate, fat, protein vitamins, minerals) Nutraceutical: a product that is isolated/purified from food generally sold in a medicinal form with demonstrated physiological benefit or protection against chronic disease (plant sterol, soy isoflavone) Chyme: the fluid resulting from the actions of the stomach on food -> acid, gastric juice, pepsin EAR: Estimated Average Requirement; median nutritional requirement of the population, scientific basis for the RDA RDA: Recommended Dietary Allowances; EAR +2stdev, meets 97-98% of the population AI: Adequate Intake, used when insufficient data for the RDA EER: Estimated Energy Requirements - When energy intake = EER there is no accumulation of fat Physiological Fuel value: caloric contents of the macronutrients - Carbs: 4kCal/g - Protein: 4kCal/g - Fat: 9kCal/g BMI: Body Mass Index = weight/height^2 (kg/m^2), correlates fatness and disease, 25- 30 correlates with overweight Pathogen: microorganism that can cause illness or death by infection or intoxication; bacteria, viruses, fungi, not necessarily spoilage organisms Pasteurization: moderate food preservation technique that heats liquids to kill pathogens but does not sterilize so there are still spoilage organisms Sterilization: produces a shelf stable product by killing all microorganisms; canning or UHT/aseptic processing – 121C Water activity: water available for microbial growth and chemical reactions, predictive of shelf life, measured as vapor pressure or relative humidity of an enclosed product - Not the same as water content/osmotic pressure - aw=n water(nwatern solute - Free water = 1.0, bacteria require > 0.9, yeast requires > 0.8, mold > 0.7 - At 0.5 enzymatic reactions slow, at 0.3 chemical reactions slow Enzyme: specialized protein molecule (of amino acids) that can catalyze reactions such as redox reactions hydrolysis/condensation eg. metabolism Oxidation: addition of oxygen to a chemical reaction, loss of electrons from another species, damaging in the body - LDL is susceptible to oxidation - Free radicals are highly unstable forms of ) that can cause destructive chain reaction of damage and result in rancidity Antioxidant: vitamins and minerals that oppose the effects of oxidants on human physical functions (Vitamin E, C, beta carotene, selenium) Blanching: mild heat treatment for fruits and vegetables to inactivate enzymes, degas before canning, wilt, destroy surface organisms D value: thermal death time; time required at specific temperature for a 1 log reduction Z value: temperature dependence; temperature change required to change the D value by a factor of 10 Hydrocooling: cold water or ice used to remove field heat from fruits or vegetable to stop respiration, air velocity and evaporation speed heat removal Spray drying: liquid food sprayed as fine droplets into warm chamber and water flashes off leaving a dry powder of small spheres (milk, coffee, cheese, juice) Freeze drying: food is frozen, vacuum is applied and water is removed by sublimation; very gentle but very expensive Turgor pressure: the structural rigidity of plant cells due to their water content and an important factor in causing firm, crispness Glycemic carbohydrate: carbohydrates with the potential to raise blood glucose because the body can cleave the bonds between the monomers Non‐ glycemic carbohydrate: carbohydrates that the body cannot break down into sugar monomers so they do not break down with acid hydrolysis or enzymes blood glucose; inulin, cellulose, lignin, insoluble fibres; many are fermented in the colon to produce short chain fatty acids Disaccharide: sugar consisting of two monosaccharides; lactose (galactose+glucose), sucrose (fructose+glucose); maltose (glucose+glucose) Polysaccharide: straight or branched chains of 10 monosaccharides or more - Glycemic: starch - Non-Glycemic: o Insoluble: cellulose, hemicellulose o Soluble: glucans, pectins, gums, seaweed extracts Glycogen: highly branched polysaccharide of glucose made and stored by liver and muscle tissue, reduces osmotic pressure - Insulin induces synthesis - Glucagon induces breakdown into glucose Glucagon: hormone secreted by the pancreas that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood when blood glucose drops via gluconeogenesis Probiotic: consumable products containing live microorganisms in sufficient quantities to colonize the colon thought to outcompete other bacteria and benefit health Prebiotic: may not be digestible by the host (fibre like inulin, fructo and galacto- oligosaccharides) but are a substrate for probiotics High Fructose Corn Syrup Gelatinization Retrogradation Polyunsaturated fatty acid: contain double bonds, increase HDL – has anti-platelet and anti inflammatory properties - Softer than saturated fats at room temperature - Protection from heart disease - Includes omega 3, 6, 9 - Named from the methyl omega end -
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