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FOOD 4090 (3)
Doug Goff (3)
Final

4090 Exam study Q's.doc

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Department
Food Science
Course
FOOD 4090
Professor
Doug Goff
Semester
Winter

Description
(10) 8. Read the following abstract PURPOSE: Our aim was to examine the association between black tea consumption and risk of total stroke and stroke types. METHODS: A total of 74,961 Swedish women and men who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline in 1997 were followed up through December 2008. Tea consumption was assessed with a questionnaire at baseline. Stroke cases were ascertained from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Registry. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 10.2 years, we ascertained 4089 cases of first stroke, including 3159 cerebral infarctions, 435 intracerebral hemorrhages, 148 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 347 unspecified strokes. After adjustment for other risk factors, high tea consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of total stroke; however, there was no dose-response relation (P for trend = .36). Compared with no tea consumption, the multivariable relative risk for four or more cups per day (median, 5) was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.998). The corresponding relative risks were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.61-1.04) for cerebral infarction and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.35-1.30) for hemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that daily consumption of four or more cups of black tea is inversely associated with risk of stroke. a) What type of study was used in this investigation? (1 mark) b) Identify 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of this type of study design. (2 marks) c) Briefly design an animal study to investigate a similar question. Make sure to state your study question and to explain the rationale for your decisions. (7 marks) a. prospective (or cohort) study b. pros: less recall bias compared to other types of observational studies long period of time reflects free-living situation provides data in human model able to generate hypotheses for intervention studies cheaper than intervention studies can study large population can study multiple outcomes can establish temporal relationships cons: difficult to remove confounding factors can only conclude about associations, not cause-and-effect relationships requires advanced statistical methods c. Here is the breakdown of marks 1: study question (is study question mentioned and makes link between 2 variables in the FFN context) 1: model stated (healthy, diseased or transgenic animals) + why (similar physiology to humans, genetically identical therefore removing genetic confounding factors, shorter lifespan) 1: feeding protocol (pair-feeding or ad libitum) + why 1: biomarker (name what is measured in the study: biomarker or incidence of disease) 1: dose (mention a dose or a fictional dose and explain why you chose that dose: based on observational study or based on what is possible to consume in huma
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