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Exam Study Q's (2nd half of course).docx

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University of Guelph
Food Science
FOOD 4090
Doug Goff

Midterm 1 Sample Questions Sample exam questions from the Introduction, Regulations and Product Development lectures 1. There is not universal agreement on the definitions of functional foods and nutraceuticals. What are the main elements of the definitions? Discuss four issues that complicate the definitions of FF and N. Functional food: - a food with added ingredients to give it its function - must be shown to have therapeutic effects - reduces the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions Nutraceutical: - a product isolated from foods  bioactive isolates - from foods which makes it “functional” - physiological benefits - provides protection against chronic disease - Different countries have different regulations / rules / views on what a FFN is - Deciding if a food is functional might depend on how much bioactive is in the food, therefore some people may consider a food is functional if it has any bit of bioactive in it while others may feel the food needs to contain a certain concentration/amount to be considered a FF - Health claims deciding if it is a FF or not  again this varies country to country, a food could be an FFN but not have been tested yet, or be tested and approved in one country but not in another - some people may think a food is only functional for a certain group of people or for a certain lifestyle 2. Compare and contrast the allowable health claims for foods and nutraceuticals (natural health products, dietary supplements) in Canada, the US and Japan. Japan - FF well develop = more consumer choice - N more restricted US - Large nutraceutical market - Safety/efficacy loosely regulated Canada - Safety/efficacy well regulated - Health claims are restrictive = approval takes a long time 3. Your company, which is a market leader in bottled functional beverages, is excited about a berry from South America that is known indigenously to reduce risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The berry has a sharp, sour taste. As product development manager, you are tasked to investigate the potential for incorporating it in your products. Develop a systematic “plan of attack” by describing the issues you would need to address. The Challenge  Delivering this compound in relevant concentrations in a form people will like Issues Addressed  Source & Supply o Domesticated  don’t want to make the species extinct o Constant supply  seasonal fluctuations around the supply makes it hard to acquire  Bioavailability / Efficacy of the bio-active ingredient o Interactions with other ingredients o Properties (solubility, survival in GI tract?) o Measurement of bioavailability? o Shelf life  Consumers o Over-consumption? o Age  Product Acceptability o Flavour, texture (how to ask the sour taste of the berry) o Colour o Cost Sample question from the Research Methods Part 1. You read a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the benefits of your functional food of interest on the risk of myocardial infarction. The two main figures of the paper, a forest plot and a funnel plot, are pictured below. a) What conclusions about the efficacy of your functional food of interest would you draw based on these figures? Explain the rationale behind your decision. Forest Plot: This is a very effective functional food…  Confidence intervals  many lines are short = small margins for chance = more certain = more precise estimates  many lines aren’t touching line of no effect = statistically significant results  Individual weighed means  many Squares are big = larger sample sizes = more contribution to pooled effect
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