Sanitation summary.docx

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University of Guelph
Food Science
FOOD 4310
Keith Warriner

Discussion 2 Summary– Sanitation Group 3 Chlorine Description  As an element in cleaning products, chlorine is used to kill bacteria, disinfect and sanitize food surfaces. It can also be used to clean fruits and vegetables.  For best results, chlorine (or chlorine-based chemicals) should be used at room temperature (any hotter, and the chlorine compounds may release chlorine gas which is toxic!). It should also be used at its optimum pH of 6 to 7.  Higher concentrations are highly effective (ie. 50-200ppm) to disinfect food surfaces. However, very high concentrations of chlorine (ie. higher than 200ppm) aren't recommended because they can cause corrosion, explosions, and adverse effects of workers.  The longer the exposure time, the more bactericidal activity there will be. Note: If the chlorine solution being used is less than 200ppm, rinsing isn't required. Using chlorine solution that is more than 200 ppm requires a warm rinse afterwards (letting chlorine stay in contact with equipment for more than approximately 30 minutes causes corrosion). Advantages  Kills a broad range of microorganisms  Relatively inexpensive compared to many other chemicals used in sanitation  Can be easily diluted with just water until the right concentration that is desired Disadvantages  Highly corrosive, posing safety risks for storage, shipping, and handling  Short shelf life  Organic matter (like meat residues) reduces its activity (and also makes undesirable compounds), therefore, must be used on "cleaned" surfaces only (ie. remove all visible residues after cutting meat)  Multiple rinses are required to remove residues if surfaces are not cleaned. This leads to consuming greater amounts of water and a risk of lack of effectiveness Food Grade Hydrogen Peroxide Description  H 2 2s used to sterilize aseptic packaging containers to prolong the shelf life of products, and also to sterilize food product surfaces.  It can remove unwanted substances such as sulfur dioxide and chlorine residue.  It can be used directly on food to bleach and clean to improve the colour.  H 2 2s a clear, colourless, and slightly viscous liquid. If left at room temperature for a period of time it decomposes into water and oxygen.  Hydrogen peroxide with concentrations up to 30%, at up to 80 degrees C, and contact times up to 15 seconds, has been found to be successful for inline aseptic packaging. The final product, to meet industry standards, must not contain greater than 0.5 ppm of H 2 2  Originally H 2 2as approved only on polyethylene, however the approval for other surfaces soon followed, including polystyrene, ionomeric resins, ethlylene copolymer resins, and more.  Hydrogen peroxide serves many uses in the food industry besides sterilization of aseptic packaging.  It is used as an antimicrobial agent in milk for cheesemaking, whey, and starch, and wine vinegar.  It can be used as an oxidizing/reducing agent in died egg products, wine, corn syrup, and starch. And also as a bleaching agent in tripe, beef feet, herring, instant tea, and more. Advantages  There is no toxic residue. Dosing is controlled in food aplications to minimize amount of residual H 02 2Any leftover residue decomposes to water and oxygen in later steps of processing. Testing for residue is easily accomplished with test strips or analytical techniques  Easy to handle. Since it is soluble in water, aqueous solutions of the appropriate strength are easy to prepare. It is compatible with the most common food processing sanitization techniques, ie. Spraying, dipping and batch mixing.  It is effective. It is a very powerful oxidizer which performs better than most products, plus with the added benefit of being environmentally friendly Disadvantages  Can have an adverse effect on product stability. If residual hydrogen peroxide becomes trapped in the package when it is sealed, it can have an adverse effect on product stability (particularly ascorbic acid degradation in fruit juices). This is why it is important to ensure residual levels are low enough before sealing the product.  Some spores can be resistant. Such as Bacillus stearothermophilus, it has been proved that dry spores are more resistant than wet spores for hydrogen peroxide.  Has potential to damage tissue. If used improperly, at high concentrations can damage tissue, resulting in a prolonged healing time. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QUATS) Description  QUATS are used to clean soiled surfaces in food industry facilities, such as tables in meat processing plants, or they are used to clean and sanitize floors, walls, furnishings, and equipment.  QUATs are also effective at cleaning porous surfaces because they are natural wetting agents.  They are used in some water-based hand rinse sanitizers for personnel because this chemical is effective against skin flora, such as staphylococci, which can cause food poisoning and cause sickness.  Its structure is made up of four compounds surrounding a nitrogen which makes this chemical very versatile because the R groups can be any combination of saturated, unsaturated, cyclic or non cyclic, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl groups.  QUATS are cationic surfactant chemicals and they are active against bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and viruses. However, they are not very effective against Gram- negative bacteria. Advantages  QUATS can have different R groups which allows them to be active against a wide variety of microorganisms  They are non-toxic, odourless, colourless, non-corrosive, non-irritating  They are good sanitizers because they possess cleaning properties due to its surfactant activity  Long shelf life Disadvantages  QUATS are non-compatible with soaps, anionic detergents and anionic matter in general  They produce foam problems in mechanical operations  They are film forming which can make them difficult to remove from surfaces if not thoroughly cleaned  Leave residues Alcohol Description  The most commonly available alcohols that can be used for sanitizing are methyl, ethyl, and isopropyl.  In the absence of water, proteins are not denatured as readily by alcohol, and this explains why a solution of 70 percent alcohol and 30 percent water is a better sanitizer than 100 percent alcohol. Isopropyl alcohol is the most effective sanitizer of the commonly available alcohols, with ethyl alcohol being a close second.  Methyl alcohol is not a very effective agent compared to the other two and this fact, combined with its toxicity, means it is not often used as a sanitizing agent.  Isopropyl alcohol at a concentration of 70 percent is an excellent, inexpensive choice for sanitizing work surfaces, bottle and flask necks, instruments and your hands. Advantages  Fast acting: Alcohol will kill most bacterial organisms in less than five minutes, but because some organisms may take longer, it is best to let items soak at leas
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