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[FRHD 1010] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 87 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 1010
Professor
Susan Chuang
Study Guide
Final

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UofG
FRHD 1010
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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FRHD*1010 Chapter Summary
Chapter 1
Human Development is the multidisciplinary scientific study of how people change and how they
remain the same over time
5 key ideas that guide contemporary study of human development from a lifespan perspective.
According to these ideas, development is:
1. Multi-directional: overtime characteristics change in every direction, not always linear.
Development’s thought of a series of gains and losses, predictable growth and
unexpected transformations.
2. Multi-contextual: each person lives a life embedded in many contexts including
particular historical period, family system, community, and socioeconomic status (level
education, family, social status).
3. Multi-cultural: culture impacts because patterns of behaviour particular to nations and
communities is passed from a generation to the next.
4. Multi-disciplinary: lifespan understanding development and its context needs to be
examined by many academic fields (ie. psychology, biology, education, sociology).
5. Plastic: human traits can be shaped, yet maintain a certain durability of identity. Every
individual and trait can be altered at any point. Change is ongoing but gradual.
A different way to study human development is to consider the 3 domains of development that
are important at every age, each of which is affected by the other two:
1. Biosocial or Physical Domain: includes growth and changes in body size, proportions,
appearance and functionings of body systems AND the social influences that guide
them. Physical development includes perceptual and motor skills/capacities and physical
health. Genetic, nutritional and health factors affect growth and change.
2. Cognitive Domain: includes all mental processes a person uses to gain knowledge or
thing about their environment. Includes changes in intellectual attention, memory,
academic and everyday knowledge, problem solving, imagination, creativity and
language. Encompasses perception, imagination, judgement, memory and language, as
well as education,
3. Psychosocial Domain: includes emotions, temperament and social skills. Changes in
emotional communication, self-understanding, self-esteem, personality and knowledge
about others. Social development refers to an interaction between a person and others
who are outside of the individual. including interpersonal skills, friendships, intimate
relationships, moral reasoning and behaviour. Central to this domain: family, friends,
community, culture and larger society.
-Development is not piecemeal, rather it’s holistic
*There is no single unified theory of human development*
Scientific Method
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1. Begin with curiosity (Question)
2. Develop a hypothesis
3. Test hypothesis (empirical research)
4. Draw conclusion
5. Report results
6. Replication
“Science without religion is lame; religion without science is blind”-- Einstein
Nature-Nurture Debate (heredity-environment/maturation-learning)
Nature refers to influence of the genes that people inherit. Nurture refers to environmental
influences, beginning with health and diet of embryo’s mother and continuing a lifetime,
including family, school, society and community.
How much of any characteristic, behaviour, or emotion is the result of the genes and how much
is the result of specific experiences?
-some people believe most traits are inborn, children are good or bad
-some people believe it’s nature, crediting or blame parents, drugs, food, circumstances
*Nature always affects nurture, and then nurture affects nature*
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): seemingly healthy baby, usually between 2 and 6
months old suddenly stops breathing (crib death/cot death).
~nature and nurture affect the outcome~
Life-Span Perspective: approach to study human development that takes into account all
phases of life, not just childhood or adulthood
-ages are rough guide to “change over time”
-traditional idea-all development advances until about age 18, steadies and then declines
-if only certain trait were chartered overtime, it’d appear, disappear, increase, decrease and
zigzag
-sometimes discontinuity evident: change can occur rapidly and dramatically
-sometimes continuity found: growth can be gradual
Sensitive Period: Time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen or
happens most easily, although it may still happen later with more difficulty (ex. early childhood is
sensitive period for language learning)
-(multi-contextual) Ecological systems approach: view that in study of human development,
person should be considered in all contexts and interactions that constitute a life (AKA-
bioecological theory)
-ecology is branch of bio that deals with relation of living things to their environment and each
other
Ecological Model Figure 1.3 (page 9 in textbook)
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