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FRHD 1010 Final: FRHD 1010 Exam Guide

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang
Study Guide

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FRHD 1010 Exam Study Guide
Chapter 9 Adolescence: Body and Mind page #326-357:
Puberty the time between the first onrush of hormones and full adult physical development. Puberty
usually lasts three to five years. Many more years are required to achieve psychosocial maturity
This process normally starts between ages 8 and 14; most physical growth and maturation end about four
years after the first signs appear, although some individuals add height, weight, and muscle until age 20 or
Menarche a girl’s first menstrual period, signaling that she has begun ovulation. Pregnancy is biologically
possible, but ovulation and menstruation are often irregular for years after menarche; the
average age of menarche among normal-weight girls is about 12 years, 8 months
Spermarche a boy’s first ejaculation of sperm. Erections can occur as early as infancy, but ejaculation
signals sperm production. Spermarche may occur during sleep (in a “wet dream”) or via
direct stimulation; the typical age of spermarche is just under 13 years
Unseen Beginnings:
Hormones an organic chemical substance that is produced by one body tissue and conveyed via the
bloodstream to another to affect some physiological function
Pituitary a gland in the brain that responds to a signal from the hypothalamus by producing many
hormones, including those that regulate growth and that control other glands, among them the
adrenal and sex glands
Adrenal glands two glands, located above the kidneys, that produce hormones (including the “stress
hormones” epinephrine [adrenaline] and norepinephrine)
HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal) axis a sequence of hormone production that originates in the
hypothalamus, moves to the pituitary, and then ends in the
adrenal glands
HPG (hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad) axis a sequence of hormone production that originates in the
hypothalamus, moves to the pituitary, and then ends in the
Estradiol a sex hormone, considered the chief estrogen. Females produce much more estradiol than
males do
Testosterone a sex hormone, the best known of the androgens (male hormones); secreted in far greater
amounts by males than by females
Sexual Maturation:
Primary sex characteristics the parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction, including the
vagina, uterus, ovaries, testicles, and penis
Secondary sex characteristics physical traits that are not directly involved in reproduction but that
indicate sexual maturity, such as a man’s beard and a woman’s breasts
Growing Bigger and Stronger:
Growth spurt the relatively sudden and physical growth that occurs during puberty. Each body part
increases in size on a schedule: weight usually precedes height, and growth of the limbs
precedes growth of the torso
Body Rhythms:
Circadian rhythm a day-night cycle of biological activity that occurs approximately every 24 hours;
circadian means “about a day”
Key Points:
Hormones begin the sequence of biological changes known as puberty, affecting every body function,
including appetite, sleep, and reproductive potential
Although many similarities are evident in how boys and girls experience puberty, timing differs, with girls
beginning between 6 months and 2 years ahead of boys, depending on the specific pubertal characteristic
The onset of puberty depends on genes, gender, body fat, and stress, with the normal hormonal changes
beginning at any time from 8 to 14 years
Puberty changes every part of the body and every aspect of sexuality; weight gain precedes increases in
height, muscles and sexuality

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FRHD 1010 Exam Study Guide
All the changes of puberty depend on adequate nourishment, yet many adolescents do not consume enough
vitamins and minerals
Diet Deficiencies:
Deficiencies of iron, calcium, zinc, and other minerals are especially common after puberty
Body Image:
Body image a person’s idea of how his or her body looks
Girls diet because they want to be thinner; boys want to look taller and stronger, a concern that increases
from ages 12-17 in both sexes and in adolescents of all ethnicities, dissatisfaction with body image is
linked to low self-esteem
Eating Disorders:
Anorexia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by severe calorie restriction and the fear of being fat.
Affected individuals under-eat, or overeat and then over-exercise or purge, depriving
their vital organs of nutrition. Anorexia can be fatal
Anorexia is officially diagnosed when 3 symptoms are present:
1. Significantly low body weight for developmental stage (BMI of 17 or lower)
2. Intense fear of weight gain
3. Disturbed body perception and denial of the problem
Bulimia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by binge eating and subsequent purging, usually by
induced vomiting and/or use of laxatives
1-3% of female teenagers and young adults are clinically bulimic they have the following symptoms:
1. Bingeing and purging at least once a week for three months
2. Uncontrollable urges to overeat
3. Sense of self inordinately tied to body shape and weight
People with other emotional or psychological disorders, especially substance abuse, personality disorders,
or affective disorders such as depression are much more likely to develop an eating disorder
Key Points:
Adolescent diets are often deficient, especially in calcium and iron
Body-image worries are common, leading many adolescent girls to skip eating for a day and many boys to
take steroids
Some adolescents develop serious eating disorders, starving themselves (anorexia nervosa) or bingeing
and purging (bulimia nervosa)
Thinking Fast and Slow:
Brain Development:
The limbic system, including the amygdala matures before the prefrontal cortex
As a result, the instinctual and emotional areas of the adolescent brain develop ahead of the reflective,
analytic areas
Furthermore, pubertal hormones target the amygdala directly, whereas the cortex responds more to age and
experience than to hormones
These neurobehavioural changes have been linked with youthsincreased behaviours in risk taking,
sensation seeking, and recklessness
Caution Needed:
The fact that the frontal lobes (prefrontal cortex) are the last to mature may explain why adolescents are
driven by the excitement of new experiences and sensations, forgetting the caution that their parents have
tried to instill
Thinking About Oneself:

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FRHD 1010 Exam Study Guide
Adolescent egocentrism a characteristic of adolescent thinking that leads young people (ages 10 to 13)
to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others
Imaginary audience the other people who, in an adolescent’s egocentric belief, are watching and taking
note of his or her appearance, ideas, and behaviour. This belief makes many
teenagers very self-conscious
Personal fable an aspect of adolescent egocentrism characterized by an adolescent’s belief that his or
her thoughts, feelings, and experiences are unique, and more wonderful or awful than
anyone else’s
Invincibility fable an adolescent’s egocentric conviction that he or she cannot be overcome or even
harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal, such as unprotected sex, drug
abuse, or high-speed driving
Formal Operational Thought:
Formal operational thought in Piaget’s theory, the fourth and final stage of cognitive development,
characterized by more systematic logical thinking and by the ability to
understand and systematically manipulate abstract concepts
Adolescents begin to consider abstractions and can make “assumptions that have no necessary relation to
Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning:
Hypothetical thought reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality
Deductive reasoning reasoning from a general statement, premise, or principle, through logical steps, to
figure out (deduce) specifics.
Inductive reasoning reasoning from one or more specific experiences or facts to reach (induce) a general
Two Modes of Thinking:
In adolescence, abstract logic is counterbalanced by the increasing power of intuitive thinking
Dual-process model the notion that two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one
for analytical processing of stimuli
Intuitive thought thought that arises from an emotion or a hunch, beyond rational explanation, as is
influenced by past experiences and cultural assumptions
Analytic thought thought that results from analysis, such as systematic ranking of pros and cons, risks
and consequences, and possibilities and facts. Analytic thought depends on logic and
Key Points:
Uneven brain development characterizes adolescence, with the limbic system developing faster than the
prefrontal cortex
Young adolescents are often egocentric, thinking of themselves as invincible and performing for an
imaginary audience
Adolescents are also capable of logical, hypothetical thought, what Piaget described as formal operational
Both emotional intuition and logical analysis are stronger in adolescence than earlier in life. Adolescents
usually prefer the former because it is faster and easier
Teaching and Learning:
Definitions and Facts:
Secondary education literally, the period after primary education (elementary or grade school) and before
tertiary education (college or university). It usually occurs from about age 12 to 18,
although there is some variation by school and by nation
Middle school a school for children in the grades between elementary and high school. Middle school
usually begins with grade 6 and ends with grade 8
Secondary Education:
Data on almost every ailment, from every nation and ethnic group, confirm that high school graduation
correlates with better health
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