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FRHD1020 Final: Week 12 Exam Notes .docx

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 1020
Robyn Pitman
Study Guide

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Week 12 ~ Divorce and Re-parenting
Diane Vaughan (1986)
Series of stages couples move toward ending their relationships
Attempts at change
Tuning elsewhere: for personal validation
Further distancing: complaints cost-benefit
Informing the other partner
Acknowledging the ending
Martial disaffection process
Decision to stay in marriage is a weighing of costs and benefits
-Focus on negative traits makes changes hard to make
-Negative focus continues so that ex-spouses can convince themselves divorce was the right choice
The history of divorce in Canada (see pages 232-234 of textbook)
In the 1900’s~ Divorce in Canada required an Act of Parliament
After World War 2, divorce rate increased
Women achieved independence in the work force
After this, divorce rate fell as concept of family was appealing
The 1960's/1970's,
No-Fault Divorce lawsNo longer necessary for one spouse to take blame
Required spouses to live apart for 3-5 yearsBetween 1968-1970, number of divorces doubled
“Marital breakdown” is only necessary ground
Adultery and cruelty can be used to explain breakdown
Waiting period reduced to 1 year
Recent Years, 2002
Focus on childrens needs first and foremost
List of criteria
Focus on “parental responsibilities” instead of “custody” and “access”
Calling on parents to decide if they will carry out their parental responsibilities on their own or with help
from a mediator, counselor, or lawyer
Enforcement of child support
Child abduction laws and penalties
Divorce Rate (see page 245-246 of textbook)
Crude divorce rate: Number of divorces in a year divided by the mid year population
Very low because it includes children and singles
Divorces per marriage: Number of divorces divided by number of marriages in a given year
If marriage rate goes down, it will look like divorce rate is going up, even if it isn’t
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E.g. 5 divorces / 100 marriages is 5% or 5 divorces / 80 marriages is 6.25%
3 provinces have the highest divorce rate (see page 245, Figure 9.3)
1. Ontario
2. Quebec
3. British Columbia
Separation: A separation occurs when one or both spouses decide to live apart with the intention of not living
together again
Agreements made about custody, access. child support. spousal support, and property
Need to create a Separation agreement
Can do this formally or informally, independently or with the courts
Who can get a divorce?
You were legally married in Canada or in any other country
You intend to separate permanently from your spouse
One or both spouses have lived in Canada for at least 1 year immediately prior to applying for divorce
The 3 grounds for martial breakdown
1. Spouses have lived apart for one year with the idea that the marriage is over OR
2. One spouse has committed adultery and not been forgiven by the other spouse OR
3. One spouse has been physically or mentally cruel making it unbearable to continue living together
~ No need for proof for reasons 2 and 3 if apart for a year. If not apart for 1 year, need proof
Contested divorce: Documents submitted about issues that cannot be agreed upon
Case goes to trial – witnesses often brought
Judge reviews information and makes a judgment
A Certificate of Divorce can be applied for
Takes many months – a judge can rule sooner about custody, spousal support, and child support if
Reasons for divorce
Fundamental issues  Infidelity and abuse
Experiential issues Disagreements, unsatisfactory sex life
Fertility issuesInfertility issues, presence of children
The top 5 reasons for divorce in Canada (see page 246 of textbook)
1. Different Values and interests
2. Abuse - Physical and Emotional
3. Alcohol and Drugs
4. Infidelity
5. Career-related Conflict
Cultural and demographic factors for divorce
~ Shift towards focus on personal fulfillment
~ Early marriage
~ Premarital cohabitation
~ Having divorced parents
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