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FRHD 1020 Study Guide - Final Guide: Strategic Choice, Endorphins, Ageism

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 1020
Shayna Sparling
Study Guide

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FRHD 1020 Final Exam Review
During your teens and early twenties
-focused on contraception; not wanting to have kids
a shift commonly occurs with couples in the late 20s and early 30s beginning to shift towards getting pregnant
rather than preventing it
-they switch from not wanting a child to wanting a child
-people choose to wait still they are economically established
the birth of a child represent one of the major life course transitions
the parent role is dictated by
-age of the child
the things you would have to do for parenting an infant are different then the things you would do from
parenting an 18 year old. It changes as the child progresses
-the experiences the child brings to the parent
whatever your kid is into effects your role as a parents (athletics, theatre, etc)
the child, whether adopted or genetically related, is considered a (with blood) relative
-makes their relationship to the parent “durable” culturally and legally. You can divorce your spouse but you
cant get rid of your kid.
-Changes in the Couple Relationship
75% of couples
-decline in their feelings of love
-experience less motivation o work on the couple relationship with the birth of the first child (Belsky & Rovine)
however, some couples relationships improve
-Transition Points
actual day and time of birth
-BUT the transition to being a parent is a process involving
deciding to have a baby
process of adapting to having the child at home
-there are complex timing norms about relationships that are age and duration graded
example: breast feeding, who should stay home and take care of child, when different food should be
introduced, when they should be potty trained etc…
-Common Reasons for Wanting Children
-having children is what you do when you are an adult
-gives you an adult status in the eyes of other people
-if you come from a place where the large family is a norm there is more social pressure to have children
-conform to social norms from society and your family

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-don’t want to miss out on the experience of having children
-being able to socialize and raise a child
Social Capital
-having children adds to the network of relationships an individual has access to
-new social networks that you have access to that can only come with being a parent; sports teams, school
trips, teachers meeting, access to Lego Land
Security of Old Age
-someone will look after you when you are old and can’t look after yourself anymore
-Choosing not to have children
it’s okay to not want to be a parent ever
-some people don’t want to have to worry about another person, spend the money etc…
its better to recognize that you dont want to be a parent before you bring one (or more) into the world
doesn’t mean you don’t like children
you might change your mind later, and thats okay, its also okay if you don’t
Things to consider:
-Kids are expensive
in Canada, the average cost of raising a child to age 18 is $243,660, that’s $1070 per month! (not taking
into account University).
not everyone can physically make a baby
the costs associated with having a baby when there are physical complications is very expensive
someone who suffers a mental illness they might not have children so they do not pass there gene on
(example: huntingtins disease)
example: LAT couples
a job where you move around a lot, don’t have the ability to take time off, can’t have a maternity leave
-“parent” is a noun and a verb
-this is a sacrifice not to be taken lightly
Video: De-criminalized child abandonment but when they did this they forgot to put an age limit on it. So people
were dropping off teenagers. Are people that have kids actually happy with their decision to have kids? Some
people feel totally trapped by parenthood. Don’t judge others for the decision they make. Nebraska
you have the right to define who you are however you want
-maybe you don’t want to be defined as wife and/or mother
intended versus unintended parenthood
-40% of pregnancies in Canada are unplanned
-unintended children receive fewer parental resources
-less emotional and cognitive support
-harsher parenting and more punishment
-increase stress levels in parents and child
-Actual and Desired Fertility
Intended Fertility
-how many children you would like to have
Actual Fertility
-TFR (Total Fertility Rate); estimates based on:
a women will be consistent with her cohort
she will live until the end of there fertility

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-Transition to Parenthood
Economic factors
-considered more heavily today than in previous generations
-relate to couples desired lifestyle
-expenses include
housing, child care, transportation, food consumption, etc…
-forget about loss of income if one parent does not return to work
Structural factors
-employment status
in particular mothers and whether or not daycare is needed
-socio-economic status and Ethnicity
values and functions adults apply to having children and number of children a couple desires
-Family size norms
middle class women have fewer children
social pressure from parents to have children
psychosocial factors
unselfish desire to express affection and concern for children
-generactivity (erikson)
fulfillment of one’s psychological needed to be needed
children achieve things parent did not, please one’s own parents, secure an intimate relationship
6 social meanings of parenthood
-tend to be pro-natalist
not sure how prevalent these views are in society today
-parenthood is a obligation
old testament directive to be fruitful and multiple
-parenthood is a responsibility
continuation of culture depends on reproduction
-Becoming a parent is:
a major transition point
a role we may choose for a variety of reasons
a role we may not wish for ourselves
important to consider carefully
-Getting Pregnant and Pregnancy
a couple’s approach to getting pregnant may be indicative of their approach to other phases
-those initiating sex with the goal of pregnancy compared to those who stop using birth control and let
“whatever happen” may be better prepared in other phases of parenthood (Cowan & Cowan)
lower live sperm count
ovulation disorders, fallopian tube blockages or pelvic inflammatory disease
-Fertility in Canada
Canadian Institutes for Health information (CIHI)
-1 in 5 babies has a mother aged 35 or older
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