FRHD 3150 Study Guide - Final Guide: Seat Belt, Sleeping Bag, Verbal Behavior

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Chapter 19
Antecedent control: Motivation
“Some of them aren’t team players” or didn’t put in effort
Worked out a motivational system in which players could earn points for performance in layup drills,
jump-shooting drills, and free throw drills at daily practice.
In addition, they could earn points for being a “team player” by making supportive comments to
teammates. Points were deducted if Coach Dawson saw a lack of hustle or a bad attitude.
Susie is a good student because she’s highly motivated. Jack isn’t motivated
Jack’s teacher believes that Jack lacks motivation. As illustrated by these examples, many people
conceptualize motivation as some “thing” within us that causes our actions. Many introductory
psychology texts describe motivation as the study of inner drives, needs, and wants that cause our actions
PROBLEM
Problem with the traditional view of motivation is that it involves circular reasoning. Why does Susie
work hard? Because she is highly motivated. How do we know she’s highly motivated? Because she
works hard.
Motivation as internal cause of behaviour leads to:
-blaming the person
- and negates how the environment can change behaviour
It’s one thing for a person to know how to emit a given behavior; it’s another thing for that person
to want to emit that behavior.
A motivating operation (MO) is an event or operation
-temporarily alters the effectiveness of a reinforcer or punisher (a value-altering effect)
- influences behavior that normally leads to that reinforcer or punisher (a behavior-altering
effect)
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Examine Mos involving reinforcers.
Deprivation and satiation of food are Mos.
- Consider, for example, the unconditioned reinforcer of food
When we are food deprived, food is a powerful reinforcer, and we are likely to engage in various food-
seeking behaviors. Just after eating a big meal, however, food temporarily loses its effectiveness as note a
reinforcer,
Mos – punishers
- timeout – sitting in dugout unable to play
- offered – earn points for performing well – five players with most points would each be
awarded a ticket to attend a major league baseball game. This announcement immediately made points a
reinforcer for the players. In addition, it increased the effectiveness of the timeout as a punisher because
the players could not earn points if they were sitting in the dugout for misbehavior.
Two main types of mos:
- motivating establishing operations
- motivating abolishing operations
Motivating establishing operation (MEO)
- event or operation that temporarily increases the effectiveness of a reinforcer or punisher
- increases the likelihood of behaviors that lead to that reinforcer
- or decreases the likelihood of behaviors that lead to that punisher
- food deprivation is an MEO
- the announcement of the coach’s points program was an MEO for points because it increased their
reinforcing effectiveness
Motivating abolishing operation (MAO)
- event or operation that temporarily decreases the effectiveness of a reinforcer or punisher
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