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Geography 1200, midterm notes.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 1200
Professor
Marinel Mandres
Semester
Winter

Description
Geography: chapter one- Monday, Jan 7, 2013 GEOGRAPHYL geo (referring to the earth, raph (means writing)- directly translated it is earth writings Why geography matters: - everything happening, happens in time and space - usually you recall an important event on terms of when and were it happened-where/when you‘re born Human geography: - the importance of an events location- provides us with clues to help us understand and explain an event - what‘s the impact of the event - how the event occurred- there is then a possibility that you can predict the event again geography matters (abbreviated version) (1) We live out our lives in distinctive places which influence our identity and daily lives. (2) Places are interdependent – which means that spatial processes connect places. (3) In terms of globalization, relationships between the global and local scales are important. (4) Places have a physical setting (e.g. by a river, in a valley) but human action gives places meaning. (5) Everything is related to everything else, but nearer things are more closely related than distant things (1st law of geography). (6) Connectivity can be as important as distance since it enables contact and interaction between places (overcoming the barrier of distance and time). Why places matter - every place as its own unique character - the uniqueness of the place gives the place identity and culture- a meaning of the place - influence our well being: health, wealth- depending on where you live, life style - influence our collective memories- over time places with have a special meaning (the cottage, vacation) - places are socially constructed- there are different degrees of importance on places (a place where people lost the war vs the place were the others won interdependence of places - most places in the world are interdependent- connected to one another- bye the functions they preform - basic scales: local scales (Guelph), regional scale, national scale (Canada), international scale, global scale - there are scales in between: like ,cities, regions **rescaling: the process of events, operating at one geographic scale that have an impact at another geographic scale ( city (earth quake in Tokyo), then gives warnings- going to national- to international - places are part of geographical processes- people are able to create and modify places - places influence how people live and how they work the world being interconnected- globalization: there is usually change that occurs with these processes (1989) - environmental process - economic process - political processes - cultural process - ( globalization is inevitable because of modern technology) 1. globalization is not necessarily inevitable- it‘s social constructed----it‘s often resisted- depending on where you are in the world- some countries do not want to be run by corporations 2. the effects/ products of globalization are not equally felt around the world- some countries may benefit by it and other parts of the world may be negatively effective (not always a win win situation) 3. globalization is run by governments- but it‘s managed by institutions (NGO) 4. the word globalization is new but its not something brand new- it‘s been evolving ever since the 15 hundreds ( the latest phase of a long term process) -^^ globalization/the constant constructing has altered the character of places and created a very interdependent world local reactions of globalization: - some places embrace it and take advantage of it and others cannot globalization has not: - made every place the same, everyone a clone of one another Studying human geography: Studies: the distribution organization of human activity, people relationships with their environments – Geographers three main Research methods: observation, visualization, and through analysis 1. observation: collecting, measuring, and recording various data - field work (qualitative techniques): example- interviews, participant observation without asking questions, content analysis- reviewing various literature (seeing if the words at beginning of a paper either negative or positive) - Quantitative techniques: interviews/ questionnaires, surveying (from space) - Laboratory work: GIS, digital mapping - Archival work: looking at old records in libraries, etc 2. Visualization: representing the data you got from observation -using maps, diagrams, charts, through text and writing reports 3. Analysis: you are then breaking down all the data you have collected through the first two stages - mathematical models, describe what‘s happening based on the data collected, you can also use maps - you will then figure out various relationships between the data (cause and effect), apply the maps - you would then take these results and try to make generalizations ( if your house is located near a train you will not have the best sleeps The wheel of science: theories, hypotheses, observation, and generalization Inductive research: going from facts to theories - negatives: preconceptions - Overcoming preconceptions: listen to the facts Deductive research: creating a theory Fundamental concepts: Region: this helps us to purposely group parcels of space (they are human constructed- people make up regions) - they provide a framework for special organization of things with similar features - example: when viewing a map of canada- there would be a English speain region and a more French speaking region three types of regions: formal region, functional region, vernacular region Formal region: (it‘s boundries last the longest, rarely undergo any changes) an area differentiated by the homogeneity of it‘s future- it‘s all or nothing: for example, on a map if you said it was a French speaking region that region would ONLY speak French! - usually used to define political jurisdictions - can also be used to define phyisiogeographic areas - they are the largest areas that we have - they are often used to explain braud patterns Functional region: like the formal region this region is also defined as an area of the earths surface, however, it is different by interactions amoung it‘s parts, which are heterogeneous (it has DIFFERENT parts doing DIFFERENT things) - usually the parts are doing specialized tasks - example: a city, metropolitan area next to one another - used by businesses Vernacular region: also an area of the earths surface BUT, that area is defined by it‘s inhabitants- by people who actually live there, not people who have visited! - sense of place: not familiar to you, you do not feel very safe - example: northern Ontario - although they are defined by the people who live there, they can also be perceived by outsiders- these people may have knowledge about it- these outsiders will have impressions/ stereotypes - they are socially constructed Location (points where is space) Can be expressed in three different ways: Nominal location: expressing location in terms of a place name, Guelph Absolute location: In terms sites and coordinates- the phsycial attributes of a location (is it located near a river, on top of a mountain) Relative location: expressing the situation of a place (the regional context)- southern Ontario, sw ontario - Distribution: pattern across space- clustered, random, uniform (the spread of disease (clustered)- it‘s one beside the other, all in one certain place, if it‘s random there is no logic to it, it will be all over the place Distance: - distance allows us to measure space→ we can express distance in 3 different ways Absolute distance: we measure this in psychical units: km miles, etc→ example: a certain place is blank amount of km from Guelph Relative distance: expressed in terms of time, effort, and cost Cognitive distance: a fixed distance→ for example: it may seem like it takes longer to get to a certain place and a shorter time to get back but it‘s the same amount of time - relative and cognitive distance can change over time → they can change with advancement of tech and with cost Distance- related concepts: - both of these concepts are associated with interaction across space distance decay phenomenon: for example: as we move away from a certain place in space something/a process/ activity will decline → high crime rate DT as we move away from there the crime rate decreases Utility: we want to maximize utility with minimal cost and effort Space: - an empty space where everything occurs - for us, empty space is meaningless→ it‘s important through interrelationships - defining space in 3 different ways: absolute space: we are able to measure physical distance and/ or the type and extent of connectivity→ areas, places, points Relative space: this can take the form of socioeconomic space- this may involve territories, political space, a province, and municipality - cultural space Cognitive space: this is based on values, beliefs, and perception of a specific space or territory→ for example: when you‘re in a certain space you‘re expected to act in a certain way, as well as dressed a certain way Place: we can define it objectively and subjectively Objectively: the internal areas of a city, province, country, etc→ these places connect people to the place that they‘re in Subjective: for ppl who live their that place feels like home, if an outsider (either reading or visiting that place) this place may seem foreign and different Accessibility: this refers to opportunities across space (that allow for interaction with other locations→ places are connected through transportation and communication networks Spatial interaction: this tells us how space has changed→ through movement for example: people moving from one place to another or even goods, and ideas could be exchanged - four concepts 1. complementiariality- there is a demand in one place, compliments that of another in another place 2. what is the cost of moving an item: look at the entire cost of the item 3. Intervening opportunities: alternative destinations→ they can influence the pattern and volume of movement- example, you want to go on a trip, it may cost less to fly out of Guelph instead of Brampton→ that‘s an alternative 4. Spatial diffusion: this refers to the spread of either prices, a disease, etc as well as the growth of these things in different places - three types of spatial diffusion - expansion diffusion: something that spreads through a fixed space→ sickness spreading - Hierarchical diffusion: the thing spreads from one location to another→ from networks- a virus gets into one computer and all of them end up getting the virus Scale: this allows us to determine how closely we wish to examine space→ do we want to look at the larger picture, or zoom in and view everything closely - ranges from small scale to global - maps: you can have maps that are small scale and large scale; small scale (covers the world or a country- there is a small amount of detail) large scale ( they cover small areas, which is very detailed Understanding maps: Projections: (text book covers it in detail) - it all depends on the purpose of the map - Equal- area: distortions - Conformal: represent distanct - Equidistance: represent direction from one central point - Azimuthal: Maps allow us to visually represent data to the observer Types of maps: Topographic: - they are usually large scale- created for general usage, like directions and hiking, etc Thematic map: - this map shows special patterns (something specific) - and how has this thing moved across space - five different types: Isopleth, proportional symbol, dot, chrop - isopleth, cartogram 1. Isopleth: 2. Proportional symbol: using lines/shapes→ indicating the intensity of the certain phenomenon/ important direction 3. Dot: the dots show us distribution patterns you can also identify areas where the certain characteristic is clustered together 4. Choropleth map: 5. Cartogram: - maps can be intentionally manipulated - is the map accurate/ why is the person creating this map ^ PERSPECTIVES AND CONCEPTS: THE CHANGING GLOBAL CONTEXT (Chapter 2) WORLD-SYSTEMS: GEOGRAPHIC EXPANSION, INTEGRATION, & CHANGE - special inequality (western world vs the developing world) - world system theory: tries to explain how special inequalities came about→ also tries to help us to understand how special inequalities are still maintained - world system: interdependent system: places, countries, and regions the world system has evolved through three main stages: • Mini-Systems: they are small and disconnected regions→ these places are culturally homogenous, they involved local production/consumption- they did not use money/ currency- they exchanged (hunter gatherer societies/ agricultural based) • World-Empires: ancient civilizations → china, ancient Egypt/ Greece/Rome→ they were much larger than the mini systems, they were no homogenous and very multi cultural→ they are held together by military/political structures, pretty small ruling class here→ this is where we first see the emergence of urban societies • Capitalist World-Economies: this economy began around the year of 1500→ this economy is different because of its large world wide production systems as well as trade (MONEY MAKING ☹ ) → a European merchant economy: they expanded over seas a created colonies, being incorporated into the world economy modern world system: core, peripheral areas, … - core: this includes highly industrialized countries (developed countries)→ these countries dominate EVERYTHING: trade, technology→ these countries are very diversified and do not focus on one thing, they are very efficient. ( the global triad: the America, Asia, Europe→ they have the power to exploit all of the developing countries - periphery: this is the developing countries, these countries usually have a disadvantage with trading relationships, their technologies are older and less desired→ they usually have economies that are under developed and there is a main focus on one main type of production (for example Niacaragua coffee beans) - semi periphery: this is in the middle, it has both characteristics of the core as well as the periphery→ it is just below the core and above the periphery- these are countries which have great potential to become developed countries→ it is different because it can exploit the periphery but at the same time is being exploited by the core (newly industrialized) INDUSTRIALIZATION AND GEOGRAPHIC CHANGE the core countries: how did they acquire that status? they became economically powerful because of innovations in production and in transportation Industrialization: began in europe--> began in three stages each is associated with a distinctive tech system/ open to industrialization and old areas were restructured (1) from the year 1790- 1850--> this is associated with the beginning of the industrial rev in Britain, this waves tech focused on water power, steam engines- industrial activity was localized and close to the scours (2) 1850- 1870--> rapid spread of industrialization from Britain to other places in Europe (france, belgium, germany, switzerland)--> did not use water power, all about steam power (railways, intro of steal, steam ships) (3) 1870-1914--> industrialization spread to countries that wasn't before, also the spread of industrialization to neighbouring countries--> electric power, large usage of chemicals (plastic, synthetics), introduction of telecommunications, and transportation- they were at an advantage because they could manufacture their own goods --> the later industrializers they were able to move easily to huge manufacturing they didn't have to invent these technologies, they had already been developed (could use the techs) INTERNAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CORE • Canals, Rivers, and Lakes • Railways: very important because they opened up many countries to be able to enhance their economic development→ roads were introduced because they were more efficient • Roads: roads allow for more means of transportation→ going different way and different places - this allowed the core countries to incorporate the periphery and the semi periphery into the worlds system → these means of transportation has made it easier for the periphery/semi periphery countries to supply the core countries with goods and various fuels (everything benefits the core countries) - this has also made it easier for the core countries to sell their goods/services to the p and sp countries - they have also made it easier for the core countries to outs course low wage production to the p sp countries - also made it easier for the core to exploit the workers in the p and sp countries as well as exploiting their land and goods communication developments have also allowed the core to export its culture to p/sp countries-- > we have switched from mass communication to a more personal means of communication ‗ORGANIZING‘ THE PERIPHERY GLOBALIZATION • Contributing Factors: what different places in the world did depended on regional specialization→ therefore, each colony was made to specialize in the production of a specific commodity (―you will produce this and you will produce that‖) - for example specializing in gold or cotton - they may have been forced to specialize in a certain food crop - they may have also been made to specialize in an industrial crop - or been made to specialize in the production of a specific stimulant (coffee, Tabaco, coco, sugar) - anything that wasn‘t able to be grown within the core countries→ there could be no competition - the panama canal was one of the crucial canals - a small amount of these countries became part of the semi-periphery - neocolonialism: this involves the indirect influence of the economy of ex colonies - 80‘s/ 90‘s: we have four interrelated factors which allowed globalization to take place→ these factors have allowed for the special immigration of the modern worlds→ the new international division of labour, international finance , the homogenization of international consumer markets • New International Division of Labour: this refers to the reorganization of specialization→ where things are made, now we have gone form national to the global scale, production systems (in the past the table was made in india now it looks at the place where the table will cost less, so the legs of the table are made in india but the actual table is made in Nicaragua and put together in another country) - there are now products of low technologies, the workers do not need any skills but they do hard labour ( simple manufacturing)→ the low tech industries are usually located in low wage countries (the semi/ periphery countries - there are also high tech products which require les labour but the workers need a higher amount of skills→ these are attracted to higher waged countries with high skills- located within the core - there are then two basic types of countries: ones with low wages- lots of workers, the other kind have high wages- skilled workers (undersupply of the high skilled workers) - commodity chains involve supplying, producing, assembling, and distributing products→ a net work of labour and production— - the new international division of labour have resulted in countries becoming a part of the semi periphery and it has also resulted in the polarization of income and wealth between countries of the core and periphery • Internationalization of Finance: - the financial system has become internationalized→ it has put in place the frame work for trade and investment (instead of having country a and b sending product/ money back there are not links that cover many countries) - ever since the 80‘s it has become a lot easier to move money around the world→ because financial markets were liberalized - the major banks are located within the core countries: London, Tokyo, and new york • New Technology Systems: - similarities between transportation and communication - since the 60‘s there has been a parallel communication technologies, computer technologies, as well as transportation→ we can simultaneously process information with these techs- communication technologies are continually being innovated - fiber optics and the internet: these are the foundations of global communication - time-space-convergence: reduction of travel and transmission time - cost-space-convergence: - developing countries/ rural areas have not had the benefit of these ^ • Globalization of Consumption: - textiles/ clothing were the first industries to be globalized - not the entire piece of clothing is made in one place - the media is pushing positional goods→ any material item with a well known brand/ label ( we are branded basically) people USUALLY want to be the same as one another • Transnational Corporations: - (TNC)→ control operations in several different countries - they represent a new form of neocolonialism - they promote two things: the production/ trade of manufactured goods, they also promote the development/ transfer of technology - example: Hudson bay company→ early form of transnational - they exploited workers and natural resources in over seas colonies→ they just took raw materials - they wanted to establish branch facilities in less developed countries→ they were able to use these peoples labour for cheaper ☹ - common to all plants were productive activities, they made parts/ sometimes assembled the parts - they are engaging in global sourcing: exploiting the differences between places in terms of production and labour costs - fast and slow world • Fast and Slow Worlds: FAST WORLD (‗Us‘) SLOW WORLD (‗Them‘) • well connected to information networks • poorly connected to information networks • news
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