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GEOG 1220 Study Guide - Final Guide: Waterborne Diseases, Geosphere, Carbon Cycle

Course Code
GEOG 1220
Lorne Bennett
Study Guide

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Geo final Review
Unit 1
Distinguish between human impact on the environment and environmental impact
on humans
Human impact on the environment is our direct influence on how the environment
changes, through population growth, resource consumption, and advances in
technology. IPAT best describes this Impact= Population x Affluence x Technology.
Environmental impact on humans is when humans are directly affect by the way the
environment has changed our lives. Humans must adapt to climate change,
environmental changes like temperature, seasons, resources development and
depletion. The major way the environment impacts humans is variation in the way the
earth moves and wobbles on its axis. Secondly change in the earths tilt. Thirdly change
in the travel path around the sun.
Explain the human-environment interaction model
Populationresourcesenvironmental impact
Resources can have positive feedback or negative feedback on population as well as
environmental impact
List several ways in which humans may be able to affect the components of the
model (e.g. population, resources, environment)
Population- size, distribution, density and growth rate effect the use of resources
Resources- supply, demand and use affect the change we have the environment
Environmental impact- is either affected by abiotic components or biotic components
Understand alternate definitions of a “resource” be aware of the challenges in
defining a resource (linked to personal scientific, technological, economic,
political and emotional knowledge and experiences)
Based on culture, and political and economic is based differently. “S.T.E.P” all affects
our view of the resources.
Bio centric- ecosystems and its organism is given more value then what we obtain
from the resources
Anthropathic view is based on the value and items we obtain from the resource
Techno centric- humans can suppress all environmental problems with technology
Eco centric- humans are part of the ecosystem and must follow their laws not our own
human laws
Identify characteristics of a functional resource
1) Resources are dynamic- means that use, stock and value will change over time and
in constant turnover
2) Resources may be depleted/degraded or obsolete- we can deplete or resource or
change to a new one making the resource obsolete

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3) The life of a resource can be extended- develop more efficient ways of resource
use can extend the life we have of them
4) Resources can be hazards
A thing or something that can be used as a function or used to create functional items,
based on needs and wants of person and people.
Distinguish between the three classes of resources (flow, stock, continuous)
Stock- is the pile of reservoir of a resource we have collected (non-renewable). Tend
to outlive human lives and take a long time to reform, some can be recycled and
reused like metals
Flow- those that can be depleted and sustained and increased based on our human use
and conservation. We must use them at a rate that they can be replenished (potentially
Continuous- resources that are likely available forever and potentially renewable.
Understand the difficulties in defining “environmental impact” (linked to personal
scientific, technological, economic, political and emotional knowledge and
Define environmental sustainability
Environmental sustainability is defined as maintaining or restoring the quantity and
quality of the biophysical resources upon which human depend
List the rules guaranteed to lead to environmental sustainability
Rule 1: associated with the movement of natural resources from the environment to us.
Renewable resources- our consumption must be equal or less then their replacement.
Nonrenewable resources- depletion of these should be equal or less the advances in
alternative innovation for new renewable resources.
Rule 2: this rule is associated with the movement of “used” natural resources from us
back into the environment
All resources- emissions or waste should be within the limit the resource system can
handle and manage itself
List the types of human activities impairing environmental sustainability
1) We have acted to change the physical structure of the biosphere-converted areas
from wetlands to dry lands, fertile to no fertile etc.
2) We have acted to change the biodiversity of the environment
we can converted complex nature to fields of corn or sow, reduced biodiversity by
monocropping and introducing non-native species which out-compete the native
3) We have acted to change the chemical composition of the biophysical environment
dumping toxins and chemicals into rivers affected the ecosystem

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4) We have acted to change the supply or storage of natural resources
overfishing, logging all of which effect the supply or stock we have of abundant
Unit 2
Recognize the decreasing link over time between humans and their ecological
Humans when we were hunter gathers depended on the environment for our needs,
preserved the ecosystem in order to survive, and followed migration of animals to there
new habitat. Our impact locally was little because we moved with our needs. As
agriculture grew and the industrial age came we development less need for ecosystems
and preserved less because we need more and more. Decreasing the link with them,
causing a separation between us and the animals resources we depend on.
Present a brief history of early hunter-gatherers; movement, tools and
ecological knowledge
99% of our human life was spent as hunter gathers; we lived life as an ecosystem with
animals and plants to survive. We created tools and had a much more larger brain to
develop better tools and ways to gather what we need to survive making us the
dominant species.
We developed tools to allow the harvest of resources must easy like hoe‟s and spears.
We advanced in our capability to hunt and gather to increase survival and once again
become the dominant species.
Knowledge is based on how we understood our prey and land. We determined was was
good and bad and development ecological knowledge to adapt to environment and be
Describe the history of human impact based on our knowledge of lower
Paleolithic, upper Paleolithic and Neolithic ancestors and bronze age societies
In Notes
List specific human impacts associated with fire, hunting and gathering of early
Fire- used to clear land, and drive animals need to survive into ambush. Land clearing
was done to produce much easy land to hunt and allow lower vegetation to grow and
attract much easy animals as prey.
Hunting- 200 genera became extinct we hunted large easy prey which in turn declined
threw natural predators in further. Our impact affected the natural balance of
ecosystem by removing a lower level species effect the higher species as well.
Gathering- produced a much smaller impact because it was localized and not at an
impact as now with agriculture. We did however over harvest was we needed most and
declined the species that way. But impact was local.
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