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Final

Geo final Review.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 1220
Professor
Lorne Bennett
Semester
Winter

Description
Geo final Review Unit 1  Distinguish between human impact on the environment and environmental impact on humans Human impact on the environment is our direct influence on how the environment changes, through population growth, resource consumption, and advances in technology. IPAT best describes this Impact= Population x Affluence x Technology. Environmental impact on humans is when humans are directly affect by the way the environment has changed our lives. Humans must adapt to climate change, environmental changes like temperature, seasons, resources development and depletion. The major way the environment impacts humans is variation in the way the earth moves and wobbles on its axis. Secondly change in the earths tilt. Thirdly change in the travel path around the sun.  Explain the human-environment interaction model Populationresourcesenvironmental impact Resources can have positive feedback or negative feedback on population as well as environmental impact  List several ways in which humans may be able to affect the components of the model (e.g. population, resources, environment) Population- size, distribution, density and growth rate effect the use of resources Resources- supply, demand and use affect the change we have the environment Environmental impact- is either affected by abiotic components or biotic components  Understand alternate definitions of a “resource” be aware of the challenges in defining a resource (linked to personal scientific, technological, economic, political and emotional knowledge and experiences) Based on culture, and political and economic is based differently. “S.T.E.P” all affects our view of the resources. Bio centric- ecosystems and its organism is given more value then what we obtain from the resources Anthropathic view is based on the value and items we obtain from the resource Techno centric- humans can suppress all environmental problems with technology Eco centric- humans are part of the ecosystem and must follow their laws not our own human laws  Identify characteristics of a functional resource 1) Resources are dynamic- means that use, stock and value will change over time and in constant turnover 2) Resources may be depleted/degraded or obsolete- we can deplete or resource or change to a new one making the resource obsolete 1 3) The life of a resource can be extended- develop more efficient ways of resource use can extend the life we have of them 4) Resources can be hazards A thing or something that can be used as a function or used to create functional items, based on needs and wants of person and people.  Distinguish between the three classes of resources (flow, stock, continuous) Stock- is the pile of reservoir of a resource we have collected (non-renewable). Tend to outlive human lives and take a long time to reform, some can be recycled and reused like metals Flow- those that can be depleted and sustained and increased based on our human use and conservation. We must use them at a rate that they can be replenished (potentially renewable) Continuous- resources that are likely available forever and potentially renewable.  Understand the difficulties in defining “environmental impact” (linked to personal scientific, technological, economic, political and emotional knowledge and experiences)  Define environmental sustainability Environmental sustainability is defined as maintaining or restoring the quantity and quality of the biophysical resources upon which human depend  List the rules guaranteed to lead to environmental sustainability Rule 1: associated with the movement of natural resources from the environment to us. Renewable resources- our consumption must be equal or less then their replacement. Nonrenewable resources- depletion of these should be equal or less the advances in alternative innovation for new renewable resources. Rule 2: this rule is associated with the movement of “used” natural resources from us back into the environment All resources- emissions or waste should be within the limit the resource system can handle and manage itself  List the types of human activities impairing environmental sustainability 1) We have acted to change the physical structure of the biosphere-converted areas from wetlands to dry lands, fertile to no fertile etc. 2) We have acted to change the biodiversity of the environment we can converted complex nature to fields of corn or sow, reduced biodiversity by monocropping and introducing non-native species which out-compete the native species 3) We have acted to change the chemical composition of the biophysical environment dumping toxins and chemicals into rivers affected the ecosystem 2 4) We have acted to change the supply or storage of natural resources overfishing, logging all of which effect the supply or stock we have of abundant supplies Unit 2  Recognize the decreasing link over time between humans and their ecological environment Humans when we were hunter gathers depended on the environment for our needs, preserved the ecosystem in order to survive, and followed migration of animals to there new habitat. Our impact locally was little because we moved with our needs. As agriculture grew and the industrial age came we development less need for ecosystems and preserved less because we need more and more. Decreasing the link with them, causing a separation between us and the animals resources we depend on.  Present a brief history of early hunter-gatherers; movement, tools and ecological knowledge 99% of our human life was spent as hunter gathers; we lived life as an ecosystem with animals and plants to survive. We created tools and had a much more larger brain to develop better tools and ways to gather what we need to survive making us the dominant species. We developed tools to allow the harvest of resources must easy like hoe‟s and spears. We advanced in our capability to hunt and gather to increase survival and once again become the dominant species. Knowledge is based on how we understood our prey and land. We determined was was good and bad and development ecological knowledge to adapt to environment and be successful.  Describe the history of human impact based on our knowledge of lower Paleolithic, upper Paleolithic and Neolithic ancestors and bronze age societies In Notes  List specific human impacts associated with fire, hunting and gathering of early hunter-gatherers Fire- used to clear land, and drive animals need to survive into ambush. Land clearing was done to produce much easy land to hunt and allow lower vegetation to grow and attract much easy animals as prey. Hunting- 200 genera became extinct we hunted large easy prey which in turn declined threw natural predators in further. Our impact affected the natural balance of ecosystem by removing a lower level species effect the higher species as well. Gathering- produced a much smaller impact because it was localized and not at an impact as now with agriculture. We did however over harvest was we needed most and declined the species that way. But impact was local. 3  Describe the origins of the agricultural revolution and the domestication of plants and animals The origin is believed to be in the Middle East in the once great land called the Fertile Crescent, which spread through Europe and settlers made it to North and South America and brought with them great tools and innovative ways to produce what was needed. Plants- found space and ability to grow funea and furnea (corn and wheat) and found it to be easy and productive Animals- Wolf and dog were first then sheep and goat, found it proactive and easy to grow small herds on small space. Mostly open pasture and grazing  Distinguish between pastoral nomadism and shifting cultivation (swidden agriculture) and list reasons why they are often no longer sustainable Pastoral nomadism- rotational grazing of domesticated herbivores Shifting cultivation- is where we clear land plot and use for few years and leave to allow fallowing to replish soil nutrients Pastoral nomadism impact was due to cultural impact, resource avaiblivilty and population. All of these made it unsustainable Shifting was bad due to soil erosion, burning and clearing all left the land dead and sometimes regeneration would work leaving it gone forever or degraded to severe  Identify links between the industrial revolution and changes in agriculture As population grew the demand did as well and agriculture could not keep up, therefore the introduction of industrial agriculture lead to increase in production and feeding capacity but also decrease in water, soil, and erosion build up  Present a brief history of the industrial revolution linked to increasing human impact on the environment 1. There was a considerable migration of people from the countryside to towns and cities. "Modern" tools/equipment and artificial fertilizer reduced the demand for labor while considerably increasing agricultural output. 2. The development of larger towns and cities introduced the problems associated with urban-industrial waste, sewage and domestic garbage. Rivers provided a handy repository. 3. The "coal landscape" evolved: mining facilities, coal heaps, tramcars, coal dust... It is estimated that over 60,000 ha of agricultural land was lost due to coal extraction alone. a. For a clear description of the impacts listed in 2) and 3) above, read any classic 1800s novel by Charles Dickens. 4. Industry as a health hazard became an issue. Air and water quality in cities were degraded because of industry and the associated "unplanned" residential districts. 4  List the characteristics of an industrial society 1. A constantly increasing production and consumption of goods often stimulated by mass advertising which may act to create artificial needs/wants. 2. An increasing dependence on non-renewable resources (oil, gas, metals) 3. A shift from use of natural materials/processes to synthetic materials/technological processes. We create chairs out of plastic rather than wood. We use synthetic fibers rather than cotton and wool. If we require more fresh water than nature can deliver, we "create" fresh water. The technological "creation" of fresh water comes from our ability to build dams and diversion channels or to build desalinization plants. 4. An increase in the amount of energy used per unit output for transportation, manufacturing, agriculture and heating. You might argue that vehicles are becoming more fuel-efficient as time passes, and this is generally true. But fewer and fewer people (human labor) are involved in building those cars. The human labor is replaced by machines and computers. 5. An interdependence of national economies and global production systems.  Link the transitions described in this unit to the human-environment interaction model presented in Unit 1 Review the online section in unit 2 Unit 3  Recognize the interconnectivity of the Earth‟s systems Every system in the world functions together in one way or another, therefore impacting the hydrosphere can result in issues with the lithosphere and contribute to the atmosphere.  Identify the types of energy playing a role at the earth‟s surface Solar energy is the biggest contributor and a small portion of energy comes from within the earth in the form of geothermal energy. Solar energy drive photosynthesis, used to convert into heat and heat the planet, provide ways of evaporation of water on the planet.  Explain the basic processes responsible for the circulation of the atmosphere Atmosphere controls how much solar energy rays enter our world; it also regulates temperature by keeping the heat within our planet and not allowing it all to escape. It also filters the sunrays and allows the penetration of only ¾ of it in. Atmosphere also controls wind movement and heat movement. North winds and south winds as well as costal all contribute to climate and temperature of locations and effect the distribution of heat, cool, and precipitation. 5  Identify the basic relationships between the atmosphere and radiant energy The atmosphere is what allows a certain amount of radiant energy into the world, and filters out most harmful rays (UV). It keeps the planet at a temperature because it holds the sun radiant energy within it and allows for it to maintain for our use and plants use.  Explain the formation of global and local scale pressure systems Created by cells like Ferrel cells and Polar cells which control how the circulation of wind and heat move on the equator and as well as the way warm air is rising and cool air lowers.  Describe how humans have affected the chemical make-up of the atmosphere Our day to day lives have increases the pollutants in the air greatly. Motorized vehicles increase CO2 emission, agriculture increases the anomia, and methane gas, and we have introduced to many pollutants into the air and haven‟t reduced or solved this issue.  Describe how humans have affected the circulation of the atmosphere In cities the vegetation is little and incoming radiant energy is converted almost to heat which is trapped inn clouds and smog from cars and homes, the city temperature is higher then the countryside  Explain the basic processes responsible for the circulation of the hydrosphere The hydrological cycle is driven by circulation of the atmosphere. There are six key processes responsible for the cycle. They include four drivers: 1) convection, 2) advection, 3) precipitation, 4) runoff, and two converters: 1) evaporation and 2) condensation. Convection generally reflects the movement aloft of moisture in ways similar to that of water boiling in a pot and so may account for much of the movement of water and water vapor aloft. Advection is the transfer of moisture within air or water currents and thus may account for the movement of water or water vapor as seen, for example in the movement of clouds (note that this important process is not included in the diagram above). Precipitation is the transfer of water from the atmosphere to the earth and runoff reflects the transfer of water from the land to sea (if it occurs below the surface, it is considered groundwater flow). Evaporation is generally a necessary precursor for the movement of moisture aloft by convection. Condensation is a necessary precursor for precipitation as this process converts water vapor to liquid water.  List processes affecting circulation of the hydrosphere at local and global scales Human movement to build arid and semi arid areas all result in the increase of evaporation, our dams which hold water still effect the movement of nutrients etc. through the hydrosphere resistricing what is circulated.  Describe how humans have affected the circulation of the hydrosphere Humans can increase or decrease the affect of the hydrosphere by building dams ad reservoirs of water, increases or decrease runoff and increase salt composition on coasts. Acid builds up in water that evaporates and rains in a new location. Humans affect all 6 processes. Arid and semi arid areas increase evaporation 6  Identify and explain the basic processes responsible for the circulation of the lithosphere The “circulation” of the lithosphere results in both constructive processes (i.e. those which build up the landscape such as volcanic activity, folding and faulting, deposition) and destructive processes (i.e. those which break down the landscape such as weathering and erosion).  Identify ways in which humans have affected the circulation of the lithosphere We have increased erosion, weathering, and also deposition, by agricultural process and industrial process. The mining industry is a huger contributor to the increase of lithosphere processes and this effect the other systems as well  List the sources and classes of contaminants measured in the Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (industrial by products from DDT and chemicals), heavy metals (power generations, smelting, burning of waste and internal
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