GEOG 1220 Study Guide - Final Guide: Aquifer, Tillage, Random Seed

83 views19 pages
Published on 16 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 1220
Professor
Documentaries
End of the line
Flight of the BIRD
Fuel
Text readings
Chapter 1 (6-10)
Natural resources: various substances/energy sources we need to survive, can be viewed as continuum from
most to least renewable
Renewable natural resources: aka RNR, natural resources replenished over short periods of time, some are
inexhaustible/perpetual, some can become non-renewable if rate of use is higher than renewal rate, ie
sunlight/wind
Renewable Resources: aka stock/flow resources or RR, can be harvested by rules living resources, regen rate
limited by rates of physical processes, ie groundwater/soil
Resource management: to balance rate of withdrawal from stock/rate of renewal or regen, used to balance
resource use with its preservation
Stock: harvestable portion of resource, if taken faster than replenished it will eventually deplete,
Non-renewable natural resources: aka NRNR, finite supply/depletable, formed much slower then use, mineral
mined, minerals require conservation/reuse/recycle, some resources truly non-renewable/can only be used once,
ie fossil fuels/mineral deposits
Minerals: civ depends on many, mined NRNR but can be part of conserve/recuse/recycle
Pop growth: paleolithic, agriculture, industrial rev, medical-tech rev, each increased resource
availability/increased carrying capacity
Paleolithic: aka Old Stone Age, 2.5 million YA, early humans gain fire use/start shaping stone tools to mod
environment
Agriculture rev: aka Neolithic period, transition from nomadic forager to agriculture, 10000-12000 YA,
Industrial rev: began mid-1700s, transition from rural human/animal powered to urban fossil fuel powered,
quality of life environmental degradation rose, modern society roots in concerns over industrial rev conditions
Medical-tech rev: ongoing, communication tech/better medical practice/green rev,
IPAT: total impact on environment (I) represented as product of pop (P)/affluence (A)/tech (T) or I=P×A×T,
affluence means level of consumption
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 19 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Carrying capacity: measure of ability of a system to support life, quantified in terms of # of people that can be
sustained by bio productivity of given area, when exceeded either pop will decline/collapse or system
altered/damaged/depleted
Tragedy of the commons: Garret Hardin, each individual withdraws whatever benefits available from common
property ASAP until resource overused/depleted, private ownership/co-op/gov regulations can help but are
imperfect, opposes laissez faire,
Ecological footprint: wackernagel/rees, tool to express environmental impact of individual/pop, inverse of
carrying capacity, calculated by area of land/water required to give raw materials they use/to absorb or recycle
waste created, looks at direct/indirect impact, footprint of average Canadian is 7.6 hectares, calculations vary
wildly because how components defined which can become poltical, opposite of carrying capacity
Bio-capacity: capacity terrestrial or aquatic system to be bio productive/absorb waste, humans exceed bio-
capacity of earth by 39%
Survival/failure: Jared Diamond, 5 crit factors to determine survival of a civ: climate change/hostile
neighbours/trade partners/environmental problems/social response to environmental problems
Chapter 10 (294-304)
Overfishing history: people start it centuries or millennia ago, accelerated in colonialism, intensified more in
20thC, decimating a species has led to disastrous ecological consequences like eutrophication or plant disease,
ie Northwest Atlantic fishery collapse or near extinction of many whale species
Factory fishing: using new tech/bigger boats/fossil fuels to catch absurd amounts, ie
driftnetting/longlinning/trawling
Driftnetting: huge nets drift with current to catch schools of fish, mass By-Catch kills dolphins/seals/sea
turtles/many non-target fish, due to By-Catch it’s banned/restricted by many nations/creation of dolphins safe
tuna label
Longlining: extremely long line with baited hooks spaced along, mostly for tuna/swordfish, By-Catch kills
turtles/sharks/albatrosses
Trawling: dragging massive cone nets through water, weights/floats keep it open, for pelagic fish, bottom-
trawling goes on continental shelf for ground fish/scallops, By-Catch kills entire communities/ecosystems,
weighted nets leave path of destruction on floor especially in reefs, likened to strip mining/clear cutting
By-Catch: accidental capture of animals, accounts for death of thousands of marine life
Industrial trawling: especially in Grand Banks/Georges Bank after its creation in 1960s/a spree of mass fishing
many fish stocks collapsed entirely
Myer/Worm findings: catch rates drop post 90% of large body fish/sharks eliminated with pop stabilizing at
10% of former levels meaning modern oceans have 1/10 of large bodied animals they used to
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 19 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Hiding pop decline: stocks depleting but global catch remains stable over last 20 years, explained by: fish fleets
traveling father to reach less fished areas, fishing in deeper waters, more time spent fishing, more nets/lines set
out, improved tech helps get to/find fish much better, data supplied to international monitors may be falsified
Age/size decrease: as fishing increase size/age of fish decreases,
Fishing down the food chain: as a fish becomes too rare to be profitable fleets shift to species in greater
abundance, shift to fish of lower trophic level
Aquaculture: aka farm fisheries, 30% of world fish production, includes freshwater fish/shellfish/marine plants,
pros, cons
Pros: improves food security, reduces pressure on natural fish stocks, reduce By-Catch, provides employment,
much less fossil fuels use then vessels, energy efficient
Cons: dense concentration increase disease chance increase antibiotic use/expense, if they escape they can
spread disease/outcompete natives or opposite can happen, food sometimes made of wild fish, can lead to
changes in some coastal ecosystems such as natural barriers like trees
Consumer choice: they have purchasing power but not enough info which some non-profits hope to solve,
whaling it became unsustainable but 1986 moratorium banned it saving several species from extinction but
japan still does it
In science: 2006 study, predicted global fishery collapse by 2048, systems with less species/genetic diversity
show less primary/secondary production/less able to be disturbed, when biodiversity reduced so were
fish/shellfish nurseries, biodiversity loss correlated with reduced filtering/detox,
Max sustainable yield: to allow max harvest of particular pop while keeping fish available for future
Ecosystem-based Management: to change fishery management shift focus from individual species to view of
marine resources as part of ecological system, set aside parts of ocean to function without human interference
Marine protected area: aka MPA, hundreds created along dev countries coasts, most allow fishing/resource
extraction,
Marine Reserves: because MPA don’t work, to preserve entire ecosystem intact without human
interference/improve fish stocks, fish would proliferate outside reserves to be fished, benefits all, opposition by
fisherman is fierce/sometimes violent, protected size generally suggested at 20-50%
Inside Reserve benefits: creates long term/rapid increase in abundance/diversity/productivity, decrease
morality/habitat destruction, lessen likelihood of extinction
Outside Reserve benefits: fish proliferate past reserve borders, allow larvae of species in reserve to seed seas
outside reserve
Chapter 9 (242-276)
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 19 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Natural resources: various substances/energy sources we need to survive, can be viewed as continuum from most to least renewable. Renewable natural resources: aka rnr, natural resources replenished over short periods of time, some are inexhaustible/perpetual, some can become non-renewable if rate of use is higher than renewal rate, ie sunlight/wind. Renewable resources: aka stock/flow resources or rr, can be harvested by rules living resources, regen rate limited by rates of physical processes, ie groundwater/soil. Resource management: to balance rate of withdrawal from stock/rate of renewal or regen, used to balance resource use with its preservation. Stock: harvestable portion of resource, if taken faster than replenished it will eventually deplete, Non-renewable natural resources: aka nrnr, finite supply/depletable, formed much slower then use, mineral mined, minerals require conservation/reuse/recycle, some resources truly non-renewable/can only be used once, ie fossil fuels/mineral deposits. Minerals: civ depends on many, mined nrnr but can be part of conserve/recuse/recycle.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.