GEOG 1220 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Northern Ontario, Gross Domestic Product, Parks Canada

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Published on 29 Nov 2011
Department
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Human Impact - Exam Notes
purpose
To understand the ‘human’ in human impacts on the environment. This
means understanding the social structures and systems that are central to
the ways we understand, use, and manage the environment and resources
shit to know
mastery of basic definitions and concepts
identify relevant social structures and trends
be able to discuss specific issues and problems
knowledge of various approaches and tradeoffs
cultural carrying capacity
the size of the population that can live a long-term, sustained balance with
the environment at a reasonable quality of life with land use systems that do
not degrade over time
natural constraints
distribution and availability of water, the quality of soil, ecosystem
biodiversity, weather, terrain, and the occurrence of natural disasters
social and cultural constrain ts
economy, technology ____________
state
_______________
ex. parks canada- “On behalf of the people of Canada, we protect and
present nationally significant examples of Canada's natural and cultural
heritage and foster public understanding, appreciation and enjoyment in
ways that ensure their ecological and commemorative integrity for present
and future generations.”
ontario ministry of
northern
development, mines
& forestry- “As the
lead ministry for the
North, the MNDMF
works to make
Northern Ontario and
the provincial
minerals and forestry
sectors strong,
healthy and
prosperous.”
major sectors of a
capitalist, market
economy
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Human Impact - Exam Notes
primary- resource extraction
secondary- manufacturing and processing
tertiary- sales and services
quaternary- research & development, intellectual activity
gross domestic product (2009):
text 43-46
As the lead ministry for the North, the MNDMF works to make Northern
Ontario and the provincial minerals and forestry sectors strong, healthy and
prosperous.”
“differences among cultures demand that geographers consider more than
the scientific character of nature and the environment and venture into the
realm of human values as well”
environment
-the composition of all abiotic + biotic things
-the chemical interactions between these beings create the biophysical
conditions in any physical area
-culture influences importance of environment in a specific area
resource
naturally occurring resource- good or service deemed of value to humans.
value is determined by different things in different places (by demand/
availability/ resource) whether it is renewable or not
since 1950:
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Human Impact - Exam Notes
who impacts the environment?
-good and bad effects from each
individuals- resource harvesters, consumers
corporations- resource users/ harvesters, manufacturing/ processing,
transport, distribution
others- universities, government agencies
environmental management is limited by society’s ability to:
1. predict and influence outcomes from nature (biophysical processes) and
society (structures and trends)
2. systematically and democratically consider all peoples affected by
particular policy/ problem
3. translate this social and scientific knowledge of the world into systems of
right that work to reduce impacts
resource management
the classification and allocation of natural resources so that the benefit to
society is maximized and impacts of resource extraction/ use leading to rapid
environmental change are related
basic concepts
externalities- a market failure that occurs when all ‘costs’ are not
incorporated into the final pricing of a good or service, when this is the case,
the market will produce more ‘externality causing’ goods or services than is
actually optimal for society
negative environmental impacts and unsustainable use of resources are
externalities of production/consumption
the common property theory- (the ‘tragedy’ of the commons) a metaphor for
the resource over-exploitation where there are no ‘rules’
a level of exploitation by one user adversely affects the ability of another
user to exploit the resource
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