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GEOG 1220 (57)

I have 95% of the material here. There are only two definitions and some case studies that have not been included. Otherwise, this is all of the content since the midterm. Good luck on the exam!

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GEOG 1220
Lorne Bennett

Human Impact - Exam Notes purpose To understand the human in human impacts on the environment. This means understanding the social structures and systems that are central to the ways we understand, use, and manage the environment and resources shit to know mastery of basic definitions and concepts identify relevant social structures and trends be able to discuss specific issues and problems knowledge of various approaches and tradeoffs cultural carrying capacity the size of the population that can live a long-term, sustained balance with the environment at a reasonable quality of life with land use systems that do not degrade over time natural constraints distribution and availability of water, the quality of soil, ecosystem biodiversity, weather, terrain, and the occurrence of natural disasters social and cultural constraints economy, technology ____________ state _______________ ex. parks canada- On behalf of the people of Canada, we protect and present nationally significant examples of Canada's natural and cultural heritage and foster public understanding, appreciation and enjoyment in ways that ensure their ecological and commemorative integrity for present and future generations. ontario ministry of northern development, mines & forestry- As the lead ministry for the North, the MNDMF works to make Northern Ontario and the provincial minerals and forestry sectors strong, healthy and prosperous. major sectors of a capitalist, market economy Human Impact - Exam Notes primary- resource extraction secondary- manufacturing and processing tertiary- sales and services quaternary- research & development, intellectual activity gross domestic product (2009): text 43-46 As the lead ministry for the North, the MNDMF works to make Northern Ontario and the provincial minerals and forestry sectors strong, healthy and prosperous. differences among cultures demand that geographers consider more than the scientific character of nature and the environment and venture into the realm of human values as well environment -the composition of all abiotic + biotic things -the chemical interactions between these beings create the biophysical conditions in any physical area -culture influences importance of environment in a specific area resource naturally occurring resource- good or service deemed of value to humans. value is determined by different things in different places (by demand/ availability/ resource) whether it is renewable or not since 1950: Human Impact - Exam Notes who impacts the environment? -good and bad effects from each individuals- resource harvesters, consumers corporations- resource users/ harvesters, manufacturing/ processing, transport, distribution others- universities, government agencies environmental management is limited by societys ability to: 1. predict and influence outcomes from nature (biophysical processes) and society (structures and trends) 2. systematically and democratically consider all peoples affected by particular policy/ problem 3. translate this social and scientific knowledge of the world into systems of right that work to reduce impacts resource management the classification and allocation of natural resources so that the benefit to society is maximized and impacts of resource extraction/ use leading to rapid environmental change are related basic concepts externalities- a market failure that occurs when all costs are not incorporated into the final pricing of a good or service, when this is the case, the market will produce more externality causing goods or services than is actually optimal for society negative environmental impacts and unsustainable use of resources are externalities of production/consumption the common property theory- (the tragedy of the commons) a metaphor for the resource over-exploitation where there are no rules a level of exploitation by one user adversely affects the ability of another user to exploit the resource Human Impact - Exam Notes attempts to explain human behaviour and how it changes in the presence of different rules that dictate rights has led large debates over resource management avoiding tragedy- ensure that there are clear rules in place that restrict actions of users ex. fishing license assign rights and responsibilities and say who may benefit from the resource the role of institutions formal organizations and/or informal set of expectations or norms that direct human behavior and stipulate rights to certain persons/ groups hydrosphere
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