Final Exam Notes - ALL WEEKS

23 views26 pages
Published on 3 Dec 2011
School
University of Guelph
Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 1220
FINAL EXAM REVIEW
Human-Environmental Interaction Model
Population: size, distribution, density, growth rate
Resources: supply, demand, use
Environmental change: abiotic, biotic
Carrying Capacity
- Maximum population of a species, consuming resources at any given rate, that a
given area of habitat can support over a period of time
o Consumption not always constant
o Carrying capacity can be large or small
o Constrained differently in different places
o Takes into account human values for the quality of life, environment and
future generations
Natural Constraints:
- Distribution and availability of water, the quality of soil, ecosystem biodiversity,
weather, terrain and the occurrence of natural disasters.
Social and Cultural Constraints:
- Economic system, political institutions, existing infrastructure, values, tastes,
fashions, religion, family structure, education approaches
Cultural Carrying Capacity
- The size of the population that can live in a long-term, sustained balance with the
environment at a reasonable quality of life with land use systems that do not
degrade over time.
o Includes sustainable food production that conserves soil and water resources
o Maintenance of other life forms and environmental features that are not of
direct and immediate economic value
o Living with a capacity to sustain disturbances from nature (earthquakes,
hurricanes) without permanent destruction to life systems
Demography and Industrialization
- Population will shrink, might be a lesser demand for resources, but that doesn't
necessarily mean resource consumption will go down
Economy
- System used by humans to meet diverse wants and needs and attempt to avoid
scarcity or overproduction. Its structure is governed by laws, rules, and norms that
dictate production, labour, price and allocation.
- In other words, what to produce, how to produce it and how products are allocated.
- Market economy is more familiar
- Also socialist, subsistence, reciprocal trade
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 26 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Major sectors of a capitalist or market economy:
- Primary: resource extraction
o Type of impacts: example of mine, have to deforest land on top of it
o About large scale landscapes, very visible change
o Categorizing activities
o Makes it easier to understand and tax them
- Secondary: manufacturing and processing
- Tertiary: sales and services
- Quaternary: research and development, intellectual activity
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
- Value of goods produced in a country (boundaries) in a given period
o Things like child care doesn't get reflected (babysitting)
State
- Body of institutions that regulates the social, economic, legal and political affairs of a
nation.
- In addition to government, this includes courts, military and law enforcement,
centralized banks or financial institutions and even schools or training facilities.
- Government: democratically elected that oversees everything
- State: institutions such as the court, law, military law enforcement, extension of the
government, but individuals running them are not democratically elected
o Large role to play in environmental management
Example:
Parks Canada
- Protect and present nationally significant examples of Canada's natural and cultural
heritage and foster public understanding, appreciation and enjoyment in ways that
ensure their ecological and commemorative integrity for present and future
generations
- Where politics gets involved and it becomes complex
Ontario Ministry of Northern Development, Mines and Forestry
- As the lead ministry for the North, the MNDMF works to make Northern Ontario and
the provincial minerals and forestry sectors strong, healthy and prosperous
- Shows how complicated and challenging it is to implement an environmental
management system
The Environment and Resources
- Environment: the composition of all naturally occurring physical beings, both living
and non-living. The chemical interactions between these beings create the
biophysical conditions found in any given place.
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 26 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o Strictly speaking we cannot rely on science, have to focus on human values
as well
o Culture and society and value systems influences the environment
o Science helps determine the thresholds of change the levels of pollution our
disturbance at which significant environmental change begins or increases
- Natural resources: a naturally occurring good or service deemed of value by
humans. Value is determined by demand(s) as well as how much of the resource is
available. Resources are either renewable or non-renewable.
o Influenced by culture, social influences/patterns
- Since 1950 the demand for resources has accelerated dramatically
o Due to rapid increase in population, consumer culture, advancements in
technology
Who impacts the environment?
- Individuals
o Resource harvesters
o Consumers
- Corporations
o Resource users/harvesters
o Processing and manufacturing
o Transport
o Distribution
- Other
o Universities
o Government agencies
Resources and Environmental Management
What is resource management?
- The classification and allocation of natural resources so that the benefit to society is
maximized and impacts of resource extraction/use leading to rapid environmental
change are reduced
- We need rules/laws for resources
o Ensure we don't over harvest
o Zoning laws: what activities can happen where
Limited by society's ability to:
- Predict and influence outcomes from nature (biophysical processes) and society
(structures and trends)
- Systematically and democratically consider all peoples/cultures affected by a
particular policy or problem
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 26 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Distribution and availability of water, the quality of soil, ecosystem biodiversity, weather, terrain and the occurrence of natural disasters. Economic system, political institutions, existing infrastructure, values, tastes, fashions, religion, family structure, education approaches. Population will shrink, might be a lesser demand for resources, but that doesn"t necessarily mean resource consumption will go down. System used by humans to meet diverse wants and needs and attempt to avoid scarcity or overproduction. Its structure is governed by laws, rules, and norms that dictate production, labour, price and allocation. In other words, what to produce, how to produce it and how products are allocated. Major sectors of a capitalist or market economy: Primary: resource extraction: type of impacts: example of mine, have to deforest land on top of it, about large scale landscapes, very visible change, categorizing activities, makes it easier to understand and tax them.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.