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GEOG1220 Midterm: GEOG 1220 Midterm Notes.docx

Course Code
GEOG 1220
Lorne Bennett
Study Guide

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GEOG 1220 – Midterm Review Concepts
Human-environment interaction model – Model explaining the relationship between human and the
environment, negative (allowing population to steadily increase/decrease) and positive feedback (uneven
population, species may die off) have different outcomes
-Greater population size, more resources needed.
-Must control amount of resource supply we use.
Attributes of the model’s components – Natural attributes: Supply, demand, use, what it is/impacts
Human attributes, resource attributes, population attributes?
Factors influencing the models components – Population, (size, distribution density, growth rate),
Environment (Abiotic, Biotic)
Externalities - The cost of producing or using economic goods or services which is not included in the
market price, for example (Big Mac costs ~$200 in externalities)(Pollution that comes with car use)
Common property resources – Resource owned by the public, Government often regulates the usage
of this resource to protect its future.
Definition of Resources: Very relative
-How we define resources is different because we’re all on a different STEP
-S - Scientific Knowledge
-T - Technologic Knowledge
-E - Economic Knowledge
-P - Political knowledge
Anthropocentric – Resource is not referred to as “Object A”, instead it would be referred to as the “use
of object A” - human centered
Biocentric – Plants and animals have rights too; supersede the needs and wants of humans. seeing
things as part of an ecosystem.
Technocentric viewpoint: technology can solve anything
Cornucopians: human ingenuity will solve any problem.
Ecocentric viewpoint: we are part of a biosphere and subject to the natural laws.
Cassandras: predict doom and disaster.
Carrying Capacity – The number of people the Earth can support, no consideration on the quality of life,
based on limits in world food production
Cultural carrying capacity – Defined by the size of the population that can live a long term, sustained
balance with the environment, and a reasonable quality of life, land use systems that do not degrade over
time, conserving resources (water, soil, coal), living to sustain natural disasters without permanent
destruction to life systems.
Resources, challenges - anybody know this ?
Characteristics of Functional Resources
- Resources are dynamic, not static; human needs & wants change, values change, tech can change
demand on resources
- Resources may be depleted (Cu, O3)/degraded (H2O) &/or made obsolete (coal in CA)
- Resources can be extended (or made to last longer) through tech & management (cars, H2O
- Resources can be hazards – natural (tsunami), tech (pollutants), health (nuclear waste)

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Characteristics of resources – Dynamic not static (Price and demand changes), Can be
depleted/degraded and or made obsolete, Resources can be hazardous to the physical environment.
Classification of Resources – Flow resources (can be depleted, sustained, or increased on a basis of
management), Stock resources (totally physical, exhaustible, depletable but capable of reuse),
Continuous resources (availability endless, independent of human action ex. Solar energy, tidal energy
and availability endless but affected by human action, air).
Environmental Impact – Definition reflects a value of judgment.
Environmental Sustainability - Maintaining or restoring the quantity and quality of the biophysical
How may it be assessed?
Human Impacts on sustainability – Extreme events (wars, oil spills, nuclear meltdown), Changes in the
composition, chemistry, quality of the biophysical environment, changes to supply or storage of natural
resources, changes to biodiversity, changes to physical structure (forests, water, etc..)
Lecture 1 Notes:
Humans can cause natural disasters to occur more greatly. We are changing “critical balances” like the
balance between erosion and soil formation, carbon fixation and carbon release, runoff and infiltration of
the soil...
Humans caused change in carbon, extinction, infiltration
All resources are limited (fish, water, plants)
Stable environment = life/death
Natural world can have “population crash” humans won't due to technology
Human-Environment Interaction Model
Attributes of model components:
Natural Human
1) Supply 1) Demand
2) Character Resource 2) Acquisition
3) Use

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Attributes of Environment:
1) Abiotic Envi: Nonliving organisms
2) Biotic Envi: Living organisms
Factors influencing interaction of pop, resources, and envi
I = P x A x T (impact=population x affluence x technology)
1. Per capita consumption
2. Public Policy
Population: health care, 1 child in china, birth control, immigration
Resource: water use, garbage disposal, “earth hour”
3. Technology: Medication, artificial intelligence 3/
4. Religion: ----
Externalities: Environmental costs of producing or using an economic good or service which is not
included in the market price of the goods. (Ex: car--pollution, oil, roads)
Characteristics of functional resources:
1. resources are dynamic, not static: things change over time as well as the value.
2. resources can be extended through technology and management.
3. resources may be depleted/ degraded/ made obsolete
4. resources can be a hazard
Unit Two
History of the Agricultural Revolution - > 10, 000 years ago (Lower Paleolithic age) – savagery,
opportunistic gathering of plants, scavenging, hunting for animals and highly mobile population
Upper Palaeolithic - tools became more sophisticated hunt more animals changed from savage to
barbaric, more sophisticated hunter gathers still mobile population
Neolithic or late Stone Age - domestication of plants and animals, permanent settlements, starting of
trade, food processing equipment, starting of trade
Bronze age – Intensification of agriculture, domestication of more plants and animals, larger settlements,
more sophisticated trade networks, metal technologies
Hunter gatherer impacts on the environment – Impact of fire (Forest burning can result in the deaths
and extinctions of species, instead of forests there is shrubbery and grasslands), Impact of Hunting (Many
species become extinct), Impact of gathering (mega fauna have disappeared)
Pastoral Nomadism – Occurs in an arid or semi arid environment, rotational grazing of domesticated
herbivores, Increasing availability of resources
Nomadic - societies always on the move never have a permanent settlement
Shifting Cultivation – Slash and burn agriculture, shift in areas of plant agriculture over time, wet
Human diffusion – Human dispersal, people moving into new lands
Abiotic – Anything non-living
Biotic – Living things
Domestication – Selective breeding of animals and plants
Subsistence farming – Agricultural practices just for personal use, rather than commercial
Sedentary Agriculture – Farming on one place, permanent agricultural settlement
Plantation systems – Large scale, specialized commercial agriculture for exotic crops
Industrial Revolution – Increased production/consumption of goods, increased dependence on non
restorable resources, shift from natural to synthetic materials, shift from natural processes to technology,
increased amounts of energy required
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