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GEOG 1220 Study Guide - Final Guide: Marine Ecosystem, Acid Rain, Hydrosphere

Course Code
GEOG 1220
Lorne Bennett
Study Guide

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‘What are the 3 types of water erosion?
Splash, Sheet, Gully.
Demographic transition model from 3rd world to industrializing countries? What
does it look like in poverty and what does it look like in rich countries?
(Lecture week 11)
Transitional: Fallen death rate, high birth rate, lower infant mortality, RAPID growth
Industrial: Fewer children with increased wealth, SLOW growth
Post industrial: Constant birth and death rates with stable or declining birth rate (straight
End of the Line Documentary:
90% of fish in the sea are estimated to be gone
Declaring ‘war on fish’
Mitsubishi (assholes!) is one of the biggest buyers of fish, buying now and freezing so that
when Bluefin tuna become extinct, they can sell for a high price

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Fisheries meeting put a cap on amount of fish that can be caught however it is double the
amount that needs to be in place to stop a collapse of fisheries and triple the amount that is
needed for fish stocks to recover
Fisherman himself was whistleblower
Fish is common resource = tragedy of commons- solutions that Hardin states apply to fish?
Hardin’s solutions to end tragedy of the commons:
1. Promote a conscience among resource users
2. Governments must regulate (requires bureaucracy)
3. Privatize resource (Not ‘just’ but better than ruin of resource= Hardin’s preferred
What are proven vs. conditional resources and how do they relate to the functional
definition of resources?
Conditional resource: untapped source of resource that we know exists, just is not
economically viable to extract until we run out of other easier deposits
Proven resources: resources already discovered and known to be economically extractable
under current demand, price, and technological conditions
Functional definition of resources: Resources are not resources until we decide we want
them so culture and human needs determine resources.
Stock resources: Stock resources are resources that can be permanently expended, and
are therefore non-renewable, and whose quantity is usually expressed in absolute amounts
rather than in rates. Examples are coal and petroleum
Flow resources: Flow resources are not permanently expendable, i.e., they are renewable,
under usual circumstances; they are resources that are replaced. They are commonly
expressed in annual rates at which they are regenerated. Examples are fresh-water runoff

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EX. Environmental Worldview White pine:
-Government sees opportunity to log for jobs (resource)
-Logging company sees as opportunity to make capital (resource)
-Environmentalists see pristine forest
-Aboriginals see a part of themselves (not a resource)
Explain the human environment interaction model
EXAM**Define environmental indicators and give examples for their use in the
IPCC report:
IPCC=Intergovernmental panel on climate change
Environmental indicators are any property or species thats presence indicates a change in
the natural process of that area. They are measurable over space and time to be able to
show a crucial change in the environment. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change
used the 1.rising sea levels, 2.temperature changes and 3.concentration of greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere as environmental indicators of climate change. Indicators are
extrapolated upon to try and predict what other changes will occur and to determine the
health of an ecosystem or as with the IPCC the planet.
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