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Exam Terms

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University of Guelph
GEOG 1350
Melissa Williams

TERMS: Cave System: a natural subterranean cavity produced by slow solution of limestone or marble. Consist of series of chambers that are large enough for a person to enter Limestone: Sinkhole: a surface depression formed by a solution of underlying limestone or by collapse of a cave Channel Restoration: the process by which a stream channel is returned to a natural state Floodplain: the flat land adjacent to a stream produced by overbank flow and lateral channel migration River: a large natural stream Expansive soil: a type of clayey soil that, upon wetting and drying, expands and contracts, damaging foundations of buildings and other structures Organic sediment: the in situ accumulation of partially decayed plant material, mainly peat. Organic sediment is common in swamps, marshes, bogs and fens. Subsidence: the lowering of Earth’s surface because of sediment compaction, an earthquake, or other natural process. Channelization: the modification of a storm channel to permit more efficient conveyance of water and sediment. Involves straightening, widening and in some instances, deepening and lining the channel Floodplain regulation: the government restriction on land use in areas subject to flooding by streams Stream: a ribbon-like body of water flowing in a channel; includes brooks, creeks, and rivers Groundwater pumping (mining): the extraction of groundwater at an unsustainable rate that is faster than water is replenished Permafrost: rock or sediment that is colder that 0 degrees continuously for at least two years and contains disseminated or segregated ice. Permafrost underlies about 20% of Earth’s land area including about half of Canada and is commonly of thousands of meters thick Discharge: the volume of water flowing past a point in a stream channel over a specific period, typically a second. Discharge is commonly measured in cubic m/sec Recurrence interval: the time between successive floods, earthquakes, or other disastrous events. Commonly expressed as average values (in years), based on the series of events. Karst: an area of carbonated rock characterized by features produced by dissolution of calcite ad dolomite, notably fissures, sinkholes and caves. Surface drainage in karst areas is poor and streams may flow underground. Piping: the slow subsurface removal of silt and fine sand from a sedimentary deposit by groundwater. May produce surface cavities, tunnels and sink holes Drainage Basin: an area that contributes surface water to a stream, also known as catchment and watershed Levee: a linear mound or embankment bordering a stream. Include natural features consisting of fine sediment deposited by overbank flood flows and artificial embankments constructed by humans to protect adjacent land from flooding Blizzard: a severe winter storm during which large amounts of falling or blowing snow create low visibility for an extended period. In Canada winds must exceed 40km/hr with less than 1km visibility for 4 hours by definition Sandstorm: a storm with high winds that transport sand particles to heights of up to 2m above the ground. Most occur in arid areas. Typhoon: a hurricane in the western Pacific Ocean. “Scary wind, or wind from 4 directions: – Chinese) Barrier Island: a long, narrow and low body of sand that is separated from the mainland by a bay or lagoon. Eutasy: a worldwide change in sea level especially one caused by changes in the amount of glacier ice on land. Swash Zone: an area along the shoreline where waves run up and recede. Carpathia: Low level Waste: Radiation: the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves or by moving subatomic waves. Main mechanism by which heat is transferred from the sun to earth, from earth’s surface to its atmosphere, and, to a lesser extent, from a wildfire to the atmosphere. Combustion: the phase of a wildfire following ignition; includes flaming, in which fine fuel and volatile gases are rapidly oxidized in high temperatures, and glowing or smoldering, which take place later at lower temps. Fuel: Pyrolysis: a group of chemical processes operating at high temps that split large fuel molecules into smaller ones; the products of these processes are volatile gases, mineral ash, tars and carbonaceous char. Aerosol: a suspension of microscopic liquid and solid particles (mineral dust and soot in the atmosphere) Faculae: Maunder Minimum: Agent Orange: Nagasaki: Rwanda: Airburst: the explosion of a meteoroid in the atmosphere, generally at an altitude of 12-50km K-T Boundary: the boundary between the Cretaceous and tertiary periods, dating to approx. 65 million years ago Shoemaker-L
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