They take place over a specific time and over a limited area, loss of human life and property. Catastrophe is essentially a large disaster: the earths internal heat. The mantle has everything to do with: the sun. Earth"s climate is determined by the sun- it evaporates. Energy sources driving hazardous natural processes hazards relating to earthquakes and volcanoes water, which drives the hydrologic cycle and winds. It is also ultimately responsible for lightning strikes and wild fires. It also attracts objects that may strike the earth: gravity. Rocks, snow, soils can move down a slope due to gravity. Recurrence interval is the average period of time between event of same magnitude. Can help predict location, intensity and type of hazards in an area. Creation, movement and deconstruction of: tectonic cycle lithospheric plates, rock cycle three major groups: sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic. Processes: metamorphism, weathering and erosion, melting, deposition, lithification: hydrologic cycle, biogeochemical cycles.