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Final

Geography Exam Review

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Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 1350
Professor
Melissa Williams
Semester
Fall

Description
Geography Review WEEK ONE Catastrophe: an event that causes damage to people and property on such a scale that recovery is long and complex. Natural processes that produce catastrophes include floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunami, volcanic eruptions and large wildfires. Disaster: a brief event that causes great damage or loss of life in a limited geographic area. Biochemical Cycle: the cycling of chemical elements or compounds through the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere Forecast: the public announcement that a flood, earthquake, volcanic eruption or other event is likely to occur during a specific period, commonly with a statement of probability. Prediction: Warning of a hazardous event; time, date, location and magnitude Hazard: a natural process that poses a potential threat to people and property. Some hazards can be predicted, most can be forecasted Natural Hazards Can Arise from 3 Main Processes 1. Internal forces within the Earth (driven by the internal energy of the earth) 2. External forces on Earth’s surface (driven by the suns energy) 3. Gravitational attraction (forces that are driven by gravity- avalanches) Risk: the probability of a hazardous event occurring multiplied by the impact on people and property. Magnitude: the amount of energy released during an earthquake (intensity- measure of the severity. Plate Boundaries: 1. Divergent- A boundary between 2 tectonic plates that are moving away from one another, where new crust is created. Include mid-ocean ridges and some continental rift zones. 2. Convergent- collisions involving oceanic and continental crust result in subduction zones. Collisions involving 2 continental plates result in collision boundaries. 3. Transform boundaries- plates slide horizontally past each other. The zone along which the movement occurs is called a transform fault. Hot spots: where magma is rising up from deep within the hot mantle. (Strings of islands are usually indicative of a hot spot) Rock Cycle: A group of interrelated processes that produce igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. Hydrologic (Water) Cycle: the movement and exchange of water among the land atmosphere and oceans by changes in state. Solar energy drives the movement among the atmosphere, oceans and continents. Residence Time: the length of time that an element, compound, or other substance spends at one place or within a specific part of the natural system. (water molecule ranges from days in the atmosphere to thousands of years in the oceans) Biogeochemical Cycle: this is the cycling of chemical elements through the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and lithosphere (carbon, nitrogen cycles). Concepts for Understanding Natural Processes as Hazards: 1. Hazards can be understood through scientific investigation and analysis 2. An understanding of hazardous processes is needed to evaluate risk (they are natural forces, only hazardous when they interfere with human activity) 3. Hazards are linked to each other and the environment 4. Population growth and socio-economic changes are increasing the risk from natural hazards (human population = greater demand on resources, occurring most in develop countries) 5. The consequences of hazards can be reduced. Direct effects: a change directly induced by an event: death, injury, property damage Indirect effects: secondary effect of an event: emotional distress, lost production and wages; donation of money goods and services and payment of taxes to finance recovery Proactive approaches: land use planning, building codes, insurance, evacuation planning, disaster preparedness, artificial control Benefits of Hazards: natural service functions (flood provides nutrients for soil) WEEK TWO- EARTHQUAKES Earthquakes - Result from the rupture of rocks along a fault, released in the form of seismic waves - Measured by seismographs and compared by magnitude - Most common at or near plate boundaries – motion not smooth/constant Epicenter: the point on Earth’s surface directly above the source, or focus of an earthquake. Earthquake Magnitude: expressed to one decimal place, measured by the Richter scale Moment Magnitude Scale (M): 1. An estimate of the area ruptured along a fault 2. The amount of movement along the fault 3. The elasticity of the crust at the focus Fault types: 1. Blind faults: are located below the surface 2. Strike-slip faults: displacements are horizontal 3. Dip-slip faults: displacements are vertical Fault Activity 1. Active: capable of rupturing during an earthquake. (moved in 10,000 years) 2. Potentially active: capable of producing an earthquake 3. Inactive: a fault that has not moved in the past 2 million years Tectonic/Fault Creep: the slow continuous movement of rock or sediment along a fracture (in response to stress) Surface waves: seismic waves that form when P and S waves reach earth’s surface and move along it (move more slowly than body waves and are responsible for damage near the epicentre 1. Love wave: rolling waves that travel in an elliptical motion 2. Rayleigh waves: rolling waves that travel in an elliptical motion Distance to the epicentre: calculated at 3 different seismic stations, a circle with that distance is drawn around the station. Focus: the point on a fault where rocks first rupture during an earthquake; seismic energy radiates out from this point Attenuation: the decrease in the intensity of a seismic wave away from the earthquake source (loss of energy) - Dense rock (bedrock) transmit earthquake energy quickly - Seismic energy slows down in areas with heterogeneous, fold, faulted crust Amplification: an increase in ground motion during an earthquake; as P and S waves slow, some of their forward, direct energy is transferred to surface waves. The Earthquake Cycle: a hypothesis that explains successive earthquakes on a fault. Plate Boundary Earthquakes: occur on faults separating lithospheric plates 1. Strike slip earthquakes (occur on transform faults- Loma Prieta) 2. Thrust earthquakes (occur on faults separating converging plates- strongest) 3. Normal fault earthquakes (occur on faults associated with divergent plate boundaries – common along mid-Atlantic ridge, mostly located under oceans Intraplate Earthquakes: an earthquake on a fault in the interior of a continent, far from a plate boundary (felt over large areas because of dense, continental rocks) Fault Scarp: a linear escarpment at Earth’s surface formed by the movement along the fault during an earthquake. Liquefaction: the transformation of water-saturated sediment from solid to liquid. (May occur during strong earthquakes when water pressure becomes high enough to suspend particles of sediment. Once the pressure decreases, the sediment compacts and regains it strength) Earthquakes caused by human interaction: 1. Weight from water reservoirs produced by dams can create new faults 2. Injecting liquid waste deep in the Earth can increase pressure and cause slippage along fractures 3. Testing nuclear weapons leads to explosions that may release some natural strain within the earth Earthquake Hazard Reduction Programs: 1. Operate national seismograph networks 2. Develop understanding of earthquake sources 3. Determine earthquake potential 4. Predict effects of earthquakes on buildings 5. Communicate research to educate the public Precursors to Earthquakes: 1. The pattern and frequency of earthquakes (based on foreshocks/microearthquakes) 2. Land-level change (uplift/subsidence/GPS stations) 3. Seismic gaps along faults 4. Physical and chemical changes Seismograph: an instrument that records earthquakes WEEK THREE- TSUNAMIS Tsunami Development 1. Displacement of the seafloor sets waves in motion that transmit energy outward and upward. When waves reach the surface, they spread outward. 2. In the deep ocean, waves move rapidly, frequency of waves is very large, height of the waves is very small 3. As the tsunami approaches land, the water depth decreases. Water piles up because a. A decrease in speed b. Increase in frequency c. An increase in amplitude 4. As the tsunami hits land it can reach heights dozens of meters high Run-up: the maximum horizontal and vertical distances that the largest wave of a tsunami reaches as it travels inland- describes the geographic areas impacted Types of Tsunami: Distant tsunami- a tsunami that travels thousands of kms across the open ocean (tele-tsunami) Local tsunami- a tsunami that affects shorelines a few km to about 100km from its source. Because of the shore distance they provide little warning. Regions at Risk - Coasts located near subduction zones or
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