ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCES FINAL
UNIT 1: The Changing Global Environment (Pg 215)
Changing Global Environment
Humans Increase rate of environmental change & quality of ecosystems
Acidic atmospheric pollution, Canadian and US industrial sources destroyed fish in lakes
and Arctic country foods
Worlds pop increased 5X since early 1990s
Ecosystems = finite productive capabilities and assimilative
WORLDS SCIENTISTS WARNING TO HUMANITY
→ Human beings & natural world on a collision course
→ Many current practices put at serious risk future we wish for society
1) The atmosphere =Ozone depletion, Increase UV Radiation
Air pollution ground level acid rain = injury humans forests, crops.
as part 2) Water Resources – Exploitation endangers food production, serious shortages in 80 countries with 40%
of of worlds population
3) Oceans – Fish catch above maximum sustainable yield, Rivers flowing into oceans carrying industrial
and agricultural waste
4) Soil – Soil Degradation from agricultural practice. 11% vegetated surface degraded
5) Forests – TRF & temperate dry forests gone before end of century
Natural Capital = natural resources, economic wellbeing and quality of life depend on natural
WORLDS SCIENTISTS WARNING TO HUMANITY SOLUTIONS
1) Control Environmentally damaging activities to restore and protect integrity of earth’s ecosystems we depend
on. – Move away from Fossil fuels to cut GHG’s
2) Manage resources crucial to human welfare more effectively
3) Stabilize population – all nations improve social & economic systems.
4) Reduce & eliminate poverty
5) Sexual equality, women control reproductive decisions.
C control environmentally damaging activities
The Complexity of environmental problems High populations, higher competition for food, water & resources
4/5 populations do not have adequate food, housing & safe drinking water
20% worlds population consume 80% of worlds resources each year
Pollution issues intensified in urban areas
UNIT 1 REVIEW!
1) Warning to Humanity – C – Control environmentally damaging activities
M Manage resources crucial to human welfare
S Sexual equality
S Stabilize population
R Reduce & eliminate poverty
World population increased 5X since 1990s, Increased competition for resources
UNIT 2: PRISONERS
The Tragedy of the Commons
Where we share common resource, inevitable use to exhaustion
Individual benefits BUT costs shared between all users
Flaws in Prisoners Dilemma Theory
Play the game many times over
Self Interest can lead to cooperation
Rig economic choices to be rational to be environmentalist
Environmentalism succeeded by changing individual incentives
Does not mean mass ruin
We can change out of generosity and altruistic thinking
Prisoners Dilemma SOLUTIONS!
Privatize them – Individual reaps all costs and benefits
Regulate with outside agency ▯GOVT & laws
o BUT, Govt corrupt, unable to police properly
o Pollution regulation = centralized solution to commons problem
o Pollution levels, no incentives to reduce pollution rather set threshold to a cost free
level. Can selfishness save the environment?
Prisoners Dilemma can lead to titfortat behavior
Eventually will lead to cooperation
Ridley & Low cooperative behavior results from selfinterest over long term
Should we appeal to the heart or the head of individuals for sacrifices to the planet?
Climate change, asking to alternate behaviours, Ridley & Low suggest we rig economic
choices to be rational to be environmentalist
We are foolish to appeal to hearts.
Cooperation being a rational choice when playing prisoners dilemma
Wherever environmentalism has succeeded has ben because of changing individual incentives.
We may change behavior due to altruistic thinking, not inherent nature to be selfish
WHAT? WHY? HOW?
• Health hazards & Sustainable • Create modified form of development for
Environmentalism development future generations
2) Deep Ecology • Earth First • Decentralized smallscale selfsufficient
• Bio/ecocentric communities.
• We cant get rid of everyone and change minds
• Critical of does not recognizof remaining humans BUT we can recognize
societal roots of problems &eradicate all forms of hierarchy and